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25 Cards in this Set

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The selling/buying of a position in a Christian Church.
What is Simony?
p. 379
This led to corruption of Church & State.
Relating to a style of Church architecture that developed in Medieval Europe featuring ribbed vaults, stained glass windows, pointed arches, & tall spires.
What is Gothic?
p. 380
Ex. of this architecture are Cathedrals of Chartres and Notre Dame.
The Pope in 1093 who issued a call for a Holy War or Crusade to gain control of the holy land & Jerusalem from the Muslim Empire.
Who was Pope Urban II?
p. 382.
Issued the call for holy crusade to regain the holy land & Jerusalem
One of the expeditions in which medieval christian warriors sought to recover control of Holy land from Muslims.
What were the Crusades?
p. 382
Holy wars between Christians and Muslims.
In A.D.1187 a Kurdish warrior and Muslim leader who took Jerusalem from the Crusaders (Christians) but later promised to let the Christian Pilgrims visit Jerusalem's holy sites.
Who was Saladin?
p. 383
The Muslim opponent of Richard the Lion-Hearted
An English King who led the 3rd Crusade to regain Jerusalem from Saladin and after many battles agreed to terms allowing Christians access to Jerusalem's holy sites.
Who was Richard the Lion-Hearted?
p. 383
Saladin's adversary in the Crusades
A long effort by the Spanish to drive the Muslims out of Spain. By 1492, Granada fell to Ferdinand & Isabella.
What was Reconquista?
p. 384.
Ferdinand & Isabella ousted the Muslims from Spain by this.
A court held by the Church in Spain to suppress heresy or beliefs different from the teachings of the church.
What was the Spanish Inquisition?
p.384.
Non-Christians could convert by faith, leave the country or risk arrest , questioning , torture & death
A system of agriculture around 800A.D. where farmers learned to organized their lands into 3 fields instead of two which allowed two for planting while the third lay fallow gaining nutrients.
What was the 3-Field System?
p. 387
A form of Crop Rotation & conservation agriculture improving food production
An organization of individuals in the same business/occupation working to improve the economic and social conditions of its members.
What was a Guild?
p. 388.
a type of union of merchants in Feudal Europe
An expansion of trade & business in the Middle Ages w/ developments in Fairs & Towns, business & banking & population growth
What was the Commercial Revolution?
p.389.
Period Characterized by economic growth
Merchant-Class town dwellers who organized & demanded privileges like freedom from tolls & right to govern towns
Who were the Burghers?
p. 391
An organized Merchant Class gaining power in Feudal Europe
The everyday language of ones homeland used by authors in literature and books.
What is Vernacular?
p. 391
Ex. Chaucer's Canterbury Tales & Dante's Divine Comedy
In 1200's a scholar who argued that he most basic religious truths could be proved by logical arguement & wrote summer theological works combining Greek & Christian thought.
Who was Thomas Aquinas?
p. 392
Christian scholar promoting basic religious truths combining Greek & Christian ideas.
Scholars who gathered and taught at medieval universities.
What are Scholastics?
p.392.
Intellectuals often gathered at local pubs to discuss matters of higher learning.
William the Duke of Normandy, a descendant of Vikings who claimed the English Crown & invaded England with his Norman army
William the Conqueror
Increased England's territory in France by his marriage to Eleanor of Acquitaine making him a Vassal to the French King & King of England also.
Henry II
a unified body of law from centuries of Case rulings by England's royal judges; a foundation of the U.S. Legal System
Common Law
"Great Charter" ; a legal document reluctantly sighed by King John in AD 1215, that guaranteed basic political rights to Nobles under English law.
Magna Carta
the law-making body of England formed by Edward I in 1295 formed from 2 Burgesses & 2 Knights from each borough
Model Parliament
ruled Frenc territory that included Paris, France, starting the Capetian Dynasty of French Kings from 987-1328
Hugh Capet
a Capetian King who took back Normandy & increased territory of France and appointed Bishops as tax collectors
Philip II of France or Philip Augustus
an English theologian who preached that Jesus Christ, not the Pope, was the true head of the Church & the Bible alone was the final authority of Christain life, translating the Bible into English from Latin
John Wycliffe
a Bohemian Professor who taught that the authority of the Bible was higher than that of the Pope; was excommunicated in 1412, seized by the Church, tried as a heretic and burned at the stake in 1415.
Jan Hus
a 13 yr. old French peasant girl who in 1429, felt moved by God to rescue France from its English conquerors ; helped restore Charles to the throne at Riems in 1429, but was later captured by the Burgundians & turned over to church officials to stand trial for heresy & burned at the stake May 30, 1431.
Joan of Arc