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49 Cards in this Set

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Nutrients
components of food required for the functioning of the body. They provide energy and building materials, maintain or repair the body, and support growth. Includes water, carbs, fat, protein, vitamins, and minerals
Calorie
a unit of energy. In food it refers to the amount of energy provided. In physical activity, it's the amount expended
Dry beans
legumes such as beans, peas, and lentils. Provide protein, fiber, vitamins, and minerals to the diet
Whole grain
grain milled in its entirety, except for the whole.
Refined grain
has bran and germ removed
fiber
the indigestible part of plant foods. Not digested by human enzymes but may be metabolized by bacteria in the intestines
Daily value
nutrient standards based on a 2000 calorie diet that are printed on food labels
carotenoids
a group of pigments in foods that are light yellow to reddish orange and are cousins to beta-carotenes. Many have some vitamin A activity
Hydrogenation
the process of adding hydrogen toliquid (unsaturated) fats to make solid fats which are more resistant to oxidation and spoilage. Partial hydrogenation creates trans fats
saturated fats
fats that are solid at room temperature. EXCEPTIONS: coconut and palm oil. Over-consumption of these leads to increased risk of disease
Trans fat
a type of fat created during hydrogenation. Consumption of this type of fat is associated with disease similar to saturated fat
Cholesterol
a type of lipid made and used by the body found only in animal source foods
dietary supplement
a product, other than tobacco, that is added to the diet that contains one of the following: vitamin, mineral, amino acid, herb, botanical, metabolite, constituent, extract, or a combo
Fortified foods
foods with nutrients added during processing
Tempeh
a fermented food made by fermenting cooked soybeans with a Rhizopus mold (tempeh starter). Highly nutritious and contains phytochemicals like isoflavones.
general characteristics of a healthy eating plan
-lots of fruits and veggies, whole grains, and dairy
-lean meats, poultry, fish, beans, eggs, and nuts
-low in sat. fats, trans fats, cholestrol, salt, and added sugars
Ideal food calorie breakdown by %
20-35% from fat
45-65% from carbs
10-35% from protein
More than 10% of food intake from protein
does not help with weight control or muscle building, but does supply energy if fat and carbs are low
Adult vitamin deficiencies
calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, vitamins A, C, and E
Children and adolescent deficiencies
calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and Vit. E
women vitamin deficiencies
folic acid and iron
Elderly vitamin deficiencies
Vitamin B12, vitamin D
6–8 oz grain
equivalents
In general, 1 slice of bread, 1 cup of ready-to-eat cereal, or ½ cup of cooked rice,
cooked pasta, or cooked cereal can be considered a 1-ounce equivalent from the
grains group.
2 cups fruit
2½–3 cups
vegetables
In general, 1 cup of fruit or 100% fruit juice, a piece of fresh fruit 2½ inches in
diameter (a small apple or large peach), or ½ cup of dried fruit can be considered as
1 cup from the fruit group.
In general, 1 cup of raw or cooked vegetables or vegetable juice or 2 cups of raw
leafy greens can be considered as 1 cup from the vegetable group.
3 cups milk
equivalents
In general, 1 cup of 1% fat or fat-free milk or fat-free unsweetened yogurt, 1 ½ oz
natural hard cheese (cheddar, mozzarella, Swiss, etc.), 1/3 cup cottage cheese, or 2
oz. processed cheese (American cheese slices) can be considered a 1-cup equivalent
from the milk group.
5½–6½ oz.
meat
equivalents
In general, 1 oz of lean meat, fish, or poultry, 1 egg, ¼ cup of cooked dried beans or
peas, or ½ oz of nuts can be considered a 1-ounce equivalent from the meat group.
Advantages of making nutrient rich choices
You'll satisfy nutrient needs before energy needs, so can have higher fat or higher sugar foods to make up the difference (like 260-360 calories' worth!)
iron sources for vegetarians
fortified foods, spinach, kidney beans, black-eyed peas, lentils, turnip greens, molasses, whole wheat bread, peas, and dried fruit
calcium sources for vegetarians
fortified foods, soy, some dark greens
Zinc sources for vegetarians
beans, wheat germ, pumpkin seeds
fiber-rich diets reduce risk of:
coronary heart disease
whole grain foods contain one of these listed as their first ingredient
• brown rice
• bulgur (cracked wheat)
• graham flour (whole wheat flour)
• oatmeal
• popcorn
• whole-grain corn
• whole oats
• whole rye
• whole wheat
• wild rice
adiposity
excess accumulation of fat cells
metabolic fitness
normal bp, glucose, insulin, and lipids
DEXA
calculates actual % body fat
air displacement
measures body volume to estimate fatness
bioelectrical eimpedance
inaccurate for dehydrated/obese...measures resistance to electrical impulses
skinfold thickness
measures the layer of adipose tissue directly under skin at several locations
waist measurement
35 inches + for females or 40 inches+ for males=central obesity
waist-to-hip
estimates central obesity
fee-for-service plan
traditional healthcare policy: you pay for your coverage
Health Maintenanc organization (HMO)
prepaid health plan that organizes healthcare services for its members
medicaid
poor people get it
medicare
old people get it
naming rights
naming rights to public spaces
Preferred provider organization (PPO)
combo of fee-for-service and HMO
product placement
showing products in movies and TV
Professional health organization/associations
entities that serve to protect and promote standards of a health profession
voluntary health agencies
health organization started by concerned citizens