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15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the shape of Haemophilus?

Where do they usually colonize?
small pleomorphic rods

Colonize mucous membranes
What serotype of Haemophilus influenzae caused the most serious infections before vaccination? Now?
Serotype b before vaccination, now is serotypes c and f and nonencapsulated strains.
How is H. influenzae transmitted?

And what kind of infections do they cause?
Organisms transmitted person-to-person through respiratory secretions

otitis media
septic arthritis
Virulence factor of H. influenzae?
antiphagocytic capsule
pro-inflammatory endotoxin
pili to assist adherence
Bordetella's shape?

name of the most important human pathogen? what does it cause?
coccobacillus (Gram -)

Bordetella pertussis causing whooping cough
How does B. pertussis spread?
strict human pathogen (no animal or environmental reservoir) spread from person to person through infectious aerosols.
pathology of pertussis? sequence of development?
begins with cold-like symptoms
toxins released by bacteria cuase death of ciliated epithelial cells
paroxysms of coughing, lasting for weeks
Which serotypes of Legionella pneumophila cause most of the human infections?

Diagnostic features of the bacteria appearance?
serotypes 1 and 6

slender pleomorphic poorly staining rods, coccobacilli in tissue, pleomorphic in culture
How is Legionella transmitted?
Aquatic saprophytes
Grow in amoebae in the water
Survive high temperatures and treatment with chlorine
Most infections occur in late summer and early fall
Infections follow exposure to environmental source
Clinical manifestations of Legionella (2 diseases)?

Virulence Factors?
Pontiac Fever
Legionnaire's disease

Facultative intracellular pathogen (replicate in alveolar macrophages and monocytes)
Infectious stages of Legionnaires?
infection through inhalation
incubation period of 2-10 days
abrupt onset of fever, chills, non-productive cough, headache
involves more than lung, multisystem disease involving GI tract (diarrhea), liver, kidneys, CNS
How is Pseudomonas aeruginosa transmitted?
Found everywhere- soil, water, food and on plants.
Survives many disinfectants
Transmission to humans comes from some environmental source
Usually involves an invasive device (Foley catheter) or destruction of an important protective structure (skin)
Clinical manifestation of P. aeruginosa?
Clinical manifestations- usually in compromised patients
Outer ear infections- Swimmer’s ear and malignant otitis media (diabetics)
Folliculitis- hot tub use
Pneumonia- cystic fibrosis patients
Wound infections- burn patients
UTI- associated with Foley catheter
Keratitis- contact wearers
Virulence factor of P. aeruginosa?
Pyocyanin (impairs ciliary function, o2 rad)
Exotoxin A and S (similar to dipheria)
Treatment of P. aeruginosa?

hard to treat due to antibiotic resistance, but can use ceftrazidime and Azetreomnam for Pen allergic

ubiquitous! hard to avoid, proper prepartion of hospital equipment, proper hand washing