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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
name one G- cocci bacteria

name four G- enteric rods

Flora of Neisseria

What are the two species of N. of clinical significance?

Diagnostic feature? (impt)
flora: oropharynx, nares

two species: N. meningitidis, N. gonorrhoeae

Diagnostic feature: found as pairs = diplococci
What diseases do N. gonorrhoease and N. meningitidis cause?
N.G. --> gonorrhea
N.M. --> meningitis
How is N.G. transmitted?

Clinical manifestation?
STD, neonates during delivery

men: urethritis, proctitis, pharyngitis
women: cervicitis, urethritis, proctitis, pharyngitis
Give examples of disseminated infections from N.G. in women, men, and neonates.
Women- PID, septicemia, skin and joint manifestations, septic arthritis

Men- septicemia, skin and joint manifestations, septic arthritis

Note most common cause of septic arthritis in sexually active young adults.( staff A was most common)

Neonatal Infections
Ophthalmia neonatorium
What are the major virulence factors of N.G.?
Lacks capsule(although cell surface repels phagocytes )
Opa proteins
Por protein (Porin)
Iron acquisition proteins (several)
IgA protease
specific functions of:

1) pilin
2) opa protein
3) por protein (porin)
4) LPS
1) Pili that facilitate attachment to epithelial cells
2)Mediate strong adherence to epithelial cells; gives N. gonorrheae colonies an opaque appearance
3) Pore in cell membrane for uptake of nutrients; Aids bacterial invasion into epithelial cells
4) endotoxin-like activity
prevelance of N. meningitidis?

clinical manisfestations
5-10% of healthy human in nasopharynx

meningitis (lysteria monocytogenes is #1 for regular adults)
Virulence factors of N.M.?
Capsule (in contrast to N. gonorrheae)
Por protein
IgA protease
normal flora of enteric G- rods?

Virulence factors of enterobacteriaceae?
GI tract

Virulence factors:
Antigenic variation
Iron acquisition proteins
Resistance to complement
Antibiotic resistance
Pathogenic strains of E. coli causes what diseases?
1) septicemia
2) gastroenteritis
3) UTI
4) neonatal meningitis
How is E. coli transmitted?
Sepsis- from GI tract to blood
Diarrheal illness- Ingestion of contaminated food or water
UTI- contamination of UT with fecal flora
Neonatal meningitis- from GI tract of mother
Source of salmonella? (same as its normal flora)

How is it transmitted?
GI tract of many animals-mammals, birds, reptiles

Consumption of contaminated foods
Handling pets
Fecal-oral transmission
Need large number for infection (10^6-10^8)
Washing the counter with a chicken
Virulence factors of S. enterica?
Attachment (fimbriae)
Intracellular invasion- Type III secretory systems
Secrete bacterial virulence factors into cells following attachment
Intracellular survival
Clinical manisfestation of S. typhi?
Enteric fever
Increasing fever, headache, myalgias, malaise, anorexia= 1 week
Then GI tract symptoms
Typhoid fever- rose spots on abdomen

long-term asymptomatic shedding may occur following clinical disease
Virulence factors of S. typhi?
Go through cells to submucosa
Macrophages engulf
Survive in macrophages and are taken to liver, spleen and bone marrow
Vi capsule- Salmonella typhi infections
How is Shigella transmitted?
# of organism to cause disease?
Where is it most common
Person-to-person by fecal/oral route
Few organisms can cause infection (100-200)
Common in daycare centers
S. sonnei is most common in U.S.
clinical manisfestation of Shigella?
Fever, abdominal cramps, blood- and mucus-containing stools.
Starts as diarrhea that then becomes dysentery (bloody)
How is Yersinia enterocolitica transmitted?
Ingestion of contaminated food, milk or water
Able to grow at cold temperatures
Farm animals (especially pigs) are normal reservior
clinical manisfestation of shigella?
Diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain

1-2 weeks duration
Chronic form can persist for months

Reactive arthritis
What does Yersinia pestis cause?
clinical manisfestation of vibrio cholerae

Mild to severe diarrhea
Watery diarrhea with flecks of mucus (rice water stools)
Can lose up to 1 liter fluid per hour in severe infections
virulence factor of vibrio cholerae
Cholera toxin increases cAMP levels.
Ions go out of cell, water follows
special features of campylobacter
Small comma or S-shaped motile bacterium
Hard to grow
Require elevated temperature, increased H2 and CO2
Six different species.
Most common in U.S.= C. jejuni
how is campylobacter transmitted?
Ingestion of contaminated food or water

Many animals serve as reservoirs (Poultry responsible for half of infections in developed countries; Also pigs, cattle, dogs, cats, rabbits)
clinical manisfestation of campylobacter?
Bacterial gastroenteritis- C. jejuni most common cause of this disease

Diarrhea that can develop into dysentery
With dysentery organism can get into blood stream causing sepsis, meningitis or spontaneous abortions