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20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Give definitions of the following:
1) obligate anaerobes
2) facultative anaerobes
3) microaerophilic organisms
4) capnophilic
1) Fail to grow in presence of O2
2) grow either in the presence or absence of O2
3) utilize O2, but grow only in the presence of low O2
4) grow in an atmosphere enhanced with CO2
Categorize the following with Gram+/- and shape:
1) peptostreptococcus
2) clostridium
3) actinomyces
4) propionibacterium
5) bacteriodes
6) fusobacterium
1) G+ cocci
2) G+ rods, spore-forming
3) G+ rods, non-spore forming
4) G+ rods, non-spore forming
5) G- rods
6) G- rods
what are some of the sites that may be colonized by anaerobic organisms?
urogenital tract
hair follicles
oral cavity (gingival crevices, tonsillar cryptos, tooth surfaces)
Give examples of anaerobes as normal flora in:
1) oral cavity/ upper respiratory tract
2) gastrointestinal tract
1) peptostreptococcus, actinomyces, fusobacterium

2) peptostreptococcus, clostridium, actinomyces, bacteroides, fusobacterium
Give examples of anaerobes as the normal flora in:
3) GI tract
4) skin
3) peptostreptococcus, fusobacterium, bacteroides, actinomyces
4) peptostreptococcus, propionibacterium
Most clinical infections by anaerobes are ___________ (endogenously/exogenously) acquired and ____________ (monomicrobial/polymicrobial).
endogenously acquired; polymicrobial
Types of infection at the following site and related bacteria:
abscesses, wound infections, peritonitis, bowel perforation during surgery or injury

Bacteroides, Peptostreptococcus, Fusobacterium + facultative organisms
Types of infection at the following site and related bacteria:
aspiration of organisms from oropharynx, necrotizing pneumonia, abscesses
aspiration pneumonia

Peptostreptococcus, Fusobacterium
Types of infection at the following site and related bacteria:
in vagina or uterus, gynecologic surgery or associated with malignancy

Fusobacterium, Bacteroides
Types of infection at the following site and related bacteria:
organisms are from the oral cavity, disseminate from blood across the BBB

Peptostreptococcus, Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, & Prevotella
Types of infection at the following site and related bacteria:
necrotic tissue, foul smell & gas, gas gangrene, myonecrosis, necrotizing fasciitis, crepitant cellulitis

Clostridium perfringens causes gas gangrene, mixed infection with Peptostreptococcus, Bacteroides, S. aureus, Strep. pyogenes or gram negative aerobic or facultative organisms
What does each of these cause?
1) Clostridium botulinum
2) Clostridium difficile
3) Clostridium perfringens
4) Clostridium tetani
1) Botulism
2) Antibiotic-associated diarrhea, pseudomembranous colitis
3) Food poisoning, necrotizing enteritis, cellulitis, gas gangrene, septicemia
4) Tetanus
Source of Clostridium
ubiquitous in the soil, water, sewage (exogenous source)

GI tract of humans and animals
What kind of toxins does each of the following secrete? (Virulence factors)
1) C. tetani, C. botulinum
2) C. difficile
3) C. perfringens
1) Neurotoxins
2) Enterotoxin and Cytotoxins
3) Many toxins with many activities: cytotoxic, degrade connective tissue, induce necrosis, act as superantigen
1) from which type of toxin?
2) how does it transfer?
3) what is the effect of the toxin?
1) A-B toxin

2) enteres the CNS by retrograde axonal transport

3) toxin blocks the release of inhibitory GABA, which results in over-stimulation and spastic paralysis
How do adults and infants get botulism?
1) consumption of home-canned foods
2) consumption of honey by infants
3) rare wound botulism
How does botulism toxin work?
It's specific for cholinergic nerves and prevents release of acetylcholine, causing flaccid paralysis
What is a major disease caused by Clostridium difficile? How does it occur?
pseudomembranous colitis.

part of normal intestinal flora originally. Antibiotics eliminate normal flora and allow overgrowth of C. difficile
Seen in LT ABx treatment patients
List 3 characteristics of Actinomyces
1) aerotolerant anaerobe, G+
2) filamentous bacteria in culture
3) cervicofocial infections
granulamatous lesions, following dental work!
Which bacteria is associated with acne development?