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40 Cards in this Set

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4 Influenza viruses.
Orthomyxoviridae
Group A
Group B
Group C
Influenza viruses are typed based on what?
serologic differences in H and N
H1N1
H2N2
H3N2

H= hemagglutinin
N= neuraminidase
Which group of influenza virus?

Most pathogenic
Many strains and serotypes
Zoonotic infection
Same strain can infect many species of animals
Potential for emergence of new strains
Group A
Flu season in northern hemisphere peaks Nov-Feb
10-20% of US population is infected yearly
_____deaths/yr in US
36,000
Cold or flu?

Fatigue, chills, myalgia, fever
flu
Cold or Flu?

Cough, sore throat
both sometimes
Cold or flu?

Headache,
diarrhea
flu sometimes
cold or flu?

Rhinorrhea
both
Complications of the flu
1-Pneumonia
2-Bronchitis and/or otitis media
3-Exacerbation of asthma
4-Reye syndrome and encephalitis are rare complications
3 human strains of Influenza Virus circulate world wide:
A/H1N1 viruses
A/H3N2 viruses
B viruses
The 2007–2008 trivalent vaccine strains are A/Solomon Islands/3/2006 (H1N1)-like (new for this season), A/Wisconsin/67/2005 (H3N2)-like, and ________________
B/Malaysia/2506/2004-like viruses.
New variants emerge yearly by mutation = antigenic _____
drift
Antigenic Shift occurs as result of dual infection with A virus in "____ host” (swine)
mixing
Antigenic shift Occurs when dual infection allows exchange of ____ segments
RNA
antigenic _____ Causes pandemics
Antigenic shift
Pandemic influenza is different from ____ influenza
avian
Influenza pandemics are _____ events
recurring
The world may be on the brink of another _____-emic.
pandemic
__ countries will be affected
All
Widespread illness will
a)occur
b)not occur
c)be appreciated
occur
Medical supplies will be a)inadequate
b)adequate
c)costly
d)unavailable
inadequate
WHO will alert the world when the pandemic threat increases?
WHO
Bird Flu: A/H?N?
Bird Flu: A/H5N1
flu Diagnosis:
Usually done by clinical presentation
If necessary, Virus isolation from ____
nasopharynx or throat
Treatment of Influenza:
Inhibition of Viral ____
Amandadine
Rimantadine
Uncoating
Neuraminidase Inhibitors
Block budding by inhibiting release of ______ from the cell
virion
Neuraminidase Inhibitors (2)
Zanamivir (inhaler)
Oseltamivir (oral)
Neuraminidase inhibitors
Must be given within __ hrs of symptoms
48
Oral agents licenced for use against influenza A
Currently, antiviral resistance has made these drugs ~ useless
Amandadine, Rimantadine
Which vaccine, live or killed?

New vaccine made yearly
Prepared in eggs
trivalent
Contains predicted circulating serotypes of A/H1N1, A/H3N2 and B
Killed
Which vaccine?

Contains cold-adapted live influenza viruses instead of killed viruses
Nasal Flu Vaccine
Cold-adapted and temperature sensitive mean the viruses can grow in the nose and throat, but not in _____
the lower respiratory tract where the temperature is higher.
Nasal Flu Vaccine:
Approved for use in healthy people between the ages of 5 and ___ years.
49
Bordetella pertussis
Aerobic, gram-_____ rod
negative
Reservoir of Bortatella Pertussis
Human
Adolescents and adults
Pertussis:

The ___ day cough
100
Pertussis:

Bacteria attach to ____ epithelial cells, toxins kill cells and stimulate inflammatory response
ciliated
Pertussis virulence factors:
Adhesins and Toxins

Adhesins:
Filamentous hemagglutinin
Pertactin
Fimbriae

Pertussis toxin- increases cAMP levels in cells, inhibits function of phagocytes
Tracheal cytotoxin- kills ciliated epithelial cells
Pertussis toxin blocks inhibition of adenyl cyclase by ADP ribosylation of G_?. The resulting inactivation of G_? stimulates adenylyl cyclase. The net effect is an increased cAMP level in the cell.
Gi
Transmission of pertussis
Respiratory droplets