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50 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Organization
A formal collection of people and other resources established to accomplish a set of goals
Organizational Structure
Organizational subunites and the way they relate to the overall organization
Traditional Organizational Structure
Organizational structure in which major department heads report to a president or top-level manager
Team Organizational Structure
Strucure centered on work teams or groups
Multidimensional Organizational Structure
Structures that may incorporate several structures at the same time
Organizational Culture
The major understandings and assumptions for a business, a corporation, or an organization
Organizational Change
The responses that are necessary for for-profit and nonprofit organizations to plan for, implement, and handle change
Reengineering
The radical redesign of business processes, org. structures, I/S, and values of the org. to achieve a breakthrough in business results; quantum leaps
Continuous Improvement
Constantly seeking ways to improve the business processes to add value to products and services
Technology Diffusion
A measure of how widely technology is spread throughout the organization
Technology Infusion
The extent to which technology is deeply integrated into an area or department
Total Quality Management
A colection of approaches, tools, and techniquest that fosters a commitment to quality throughout the organization
Outsourcing
Contracting with outside professional services to meet specific business needs
Downsizing
Reducing the number of employees to cut costs
Competitive Advantage
A significant and (ideally) long-term benefit to a company over its competition
Porter's Five-Forces Model
Competitive forces model; 1)rivalry among existing competitors; 2)Threat of new entrants; 3)Threat of substitue products and services; 4)Bargaining power of buyers; 5)Bargaining power of suppliers
Rivalry Among Competitors
5 Forces
Analyze how resources and assets are used; Resource based view focuses on acq/controlling assets/resources to help gain Comp.Adv.
Methods Used to Alter Industry Structure
Process of changing the insdstry to become more favorable to the company; Gain more power over suppliers/customers; Create barriers to new Co.'s; Strategic alliances/ptnrships
Altering Products and Services
Create new products and services to gain compAdv.; constantly develop
Forces + Methods for Comp. ADV.
Alter Industry Structure; Created New Products and Services; Improve Existing Product Lines and Services
Productivity
Output/Input
Roles in Information Systems
Operations: focueses on the use/efficiency of IS; Sys. Dev.: Specifice dev. projects/ongoing maint.; Support:providing user assistance in hard/software use
Hardware
Any machinery that assists in the input, processing, storage, and output activities of an IS
Hardware Components
CPU, ALU, Control Unit, Register, Primary Storage
CPU's Purpose
responsible for processing; arithmetic/logic, control unit, register areas; associated with the memory
Pipelining
A form of CPU operation in which there are multiple execution phases in a single machine cycle
Moore's Law
A hypothesis that states that transistor densities on a single chip will double every 18 months
Superconductivity
A property of certain metals that allows current to flow with minimal electrical resistance; trying to find something beyond silicone
Primary Storage
Part of the computer that holds program instructions and data; RAM, Cache, ROM
Secondary Storage
Devices that store larger amounts of data, instructions, and information more permanently than allowed with main memory; Magnetic Tape, Discs, DVD, Flash Memory
RAM
Random Access Memory; temporary and volatile
ROM
Read-Only Memory; non-volatile, circuit states is fixed; provides permanent storage for data+instructions
Sequential Access
Data must be accessed in the order in which it was stored; SASD
Direct Access
Data can be retrieved directly without the need to pass by other data in sequence; DASD
Input Devices
Getting Data into the computer; Voice Recognition, Personal Computer Input Devices, Digital Computer Cameras
Output Devices
Provide the right information to the right person in the right format/time; Monitors, LCD, MP3 players, Printers
System Software
The set of programs designed to coordinate the activites and functions of the hardware and various programs throughtout the computer system
Application Software
Programs that help users solve particular computing problems
Computer Program
Sequences of instructions for the computer
Documentation
Text that describes the program functions to help the user operate the computer system
Operating System
A set of computer programs that controls the computer hardware and acts as an interface with application programs
Graphical User Interface vs. Command
Command- text commands given to computer to perform; Graphical- uses pictures and icons displayed to send commands to computer
User Interface
Allows individuals to access and command the computer system
Utility Programs
Programs used to merge and sort sets of data, keep track of Comp. jobs being run, compress data before they are stored/transmitted over a network, perform other important tasks
Groupware
Supports teamwork; Conveinent, Content, Coverage
ERP
A set of integrated programs that manage a company's vital business operations for an entire multisite, global organization
Programming Languages
Sets of keywords, symbols, and a system of rules for constructing statements by which humans can communicate instructions to be executed by a computer
Levels of Program Languages
First - Fourth Generation; Machine, Assembly, High-level, Query and Database, Natural and Intelligent
Software Bug
A defect in a computer program that keeps it from performing in the manner intended
Open-Source Software
Software that is freely available to anyone in a form that can be easily modified