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31 Cards in this Set

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Variables that affect building behavior in the course of a fire.
Automatic fire protection systems
Fire or fuel load
Type of Construction
Building access
Types of Construction
Fire resistive
Masonry or ordinary
Heavy timber
Wood frame
What is a building code?
A building code is a body of law that determines the minimum standards that buildings must meet in the interest of community safety and health.
What are the three model codes used in the United States?
-Uniform Building Code
-The Standard Building Code
-The BOCA National Building Code
What is the International Building Code?
A single code package that combines the three model codes. Included in this package is the International Fire Code.
The five major clasifications for buildings are...
Type I, Fire resistive
Type II, Noncombustable
Type III, Exterior protected (masonry)
Type IV, Heavy timber
Type V, Wood frame
Type I, Fire resistive
The structual members are of noncombustable materials that have a specified fire resistance. Reinforced concrete or protected steel frame.
Type II, Noncombustable
The use of unprotected steel is the most common characteristic in unprotected, noncombustable construction.
Type III, Masonry or Ordinary
The interior building components are permitted to be combustable, and the structure itself contributes fuel to the fire. Structural stability cannot be assumed.
Type IV, Heavy Timber
The beams, columns, floors, and roofs are made of solid or laminated wood. The primary fire hazard is massive ammount of fuel.
Type V, Wood frame
All major structrual components are permitted to be of combustable material. Can be totally involved and completely destroyed in a fire.
Building Loads
-Direct pressure
-Aerodynamic drag
-Negative pressure
-Rocking effects
-Clean-off effect
Soil pressure
External Loads
-Tension-Tends to pull material apart
-Compression-Tends to squeeze the material
-Shear-Tends to slide one plane of a material past an adjacent plane
Structural Components
Trusses - see features of trusses
Space frames
Features of Trusses
Framed structural units made of a group of triagles in one plane. Members are called top chords, bottom chords, and diagonals or web members. Trusses have the potential for early failure because failure of any portion of the top or botttom chords results in total failure of the truss.
Basic Structual Systems
Structural Bearing Walls
Frame Structural Systems
-Steel stud wall framing
-Post and Beam construction
-Rigid Frame
-Truss Frames
-Slab and Column frames
Shell and Membrain systems
Legacy Church and tents are examples of this type of system.
Structural Systems
Concrete Structures
Steel Framed Structures
Masonry Structures
Wood Structures
Floors and Ceilings
A ceiling is always rated as part of a floor and ceiling assembly. Regardless of the type of construction used for a floor, one peril that firefighters may encounter in buildings is large unprotected, unguarded openings in floors.
Types of walls
Fire Walls
Party walls
Fire partitions
Enclosure/shaft walls
Curtain walls
Moveable partitions
Roof Types
General points regarding roofs.
1. Roofs are usually weaker than floors.
2. Many types of roof construction have inherant concealed spaces.
3. Over the course of time, loads may be added to roofs for which they are not designed.
4. Roofs are subject to wear and deterioration from exposure to the elements.
Should a stairwell be used for ventilation?
Using the stairwell for ventilation may render the stair unusable as an exit for floors located above the fire.
What is the practical upper limit of hydrolic elevators?
About six stories.
The most common type of elevator in buildings over six stories is _______?
The traction elevator.
Describe phase I operations of an elevator.
The automatic recall of all elevators to their terminal floor. The emergency stop and floor selection buttons are inoperative so that the car occupants cannot stop the car anywhere but the terminal floor.
Describe phase II operations of an elevator.
A key is rquired for fire fighter use. Doors must be opened and closed with the buttons located inside the elevator.
Radiation decreases by how much as buildings move apart.
as distance is doubled thermal radiation is reduced four times
Are driven into the ground and develop their load-carrying ability either through friction with the surroinding soil or by being driven into contact with rock or a load-bearing soil layer.
pg 67
Constructed by first drilling or digging a shaft and then filling it with concrete. When a dier is designed with a footing, it is known as a "belled" pier.
pg 68
What is underpinning?
The process of strengthining an existing foundation is known as underpinning.
pg 68
Describe the difference between shoring and underpinning.
Shoring refers to temporary supports; underpinning refers to permanent supports.
pg 68