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15 Cards in this Set

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Superantigens
Bind directly to MHC II and T-cell receptor, activating large numbers of T cells to
stimulate release of IL-1 and IL-2.
S. aureus
TSST-1 causes toxic shock syndrome (fever, rash, shock). Enterotoxins cause food
poisoning.
S. pyogenes
Scarlet fever–strain SPE toxin causes toxic shock–like syndrome.
ADP ribosylating A-B toxins
Interfere with host cell function. B (binding) component binds to a receptor on surface of host cell, enabling endocytosis. A (active) component then attaches an ADP-ribosyl to a host cell protein (ADP ribosylation), altering protein function.
Corynebacterium diptheria
Inactivates elongation factor (EF-2) (similar to Pseudomonas exotoxin A); causes pharyngitis and pseudomembrane in throat
Vibrio cholerae
ADP ribosylation of G protein stimulates adenylyl cyclase; increases pumping of Cl− and H2O into gut; causes voluminous rice-water diarrhea.
E. coli
Heat-labile toxin stimulates adenylate cyclase (cholera-like mechanism), causing watery diarrhea. Heat-stable toxin stimulates guanylate cyclase.
Bordetella pertussis
Stimulates adenylate cyclase; causes whooping cough; inhibits chemokine receptor, causing lymphocytosis.
Clostridium Perfringens
α toxin causes gas gangrene; get double zone of hemolysis on blood agar.
C. tetani
Blocks the release of inhibitory neurotransmitter glycine; causes “lockjaw.”
C. botulinum
Blocks the release of acetylcholine; causes anticholinergic symptoms, CNS
paralysis; spores found in canned food, honey (causes floppy baby).
Bacillus anthracis
1 toxin in the toxin complex is an adenylate cyclase.
Shigella
Shiga toxin (also produced by E. coli O157:H7) cleaves host cell rRNA; also enhances
cytokine release, causing HUS.
S. pyogenes
Streptolysin O is a hemolysin; antigen for ASO antibody in rheumatic fever.
lipid A
endotoxin found in gram -
activated macrophages, complement (alternate pathway), Activates Hageman Factor (coagulation cascade --> DIC)