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55 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Power
ability to influence others so they do things they would not do otherwise
Types of Power
Coercive=fear
Reward=Postive benefit
Legitimate=authority of position
Expert=expertise, knowledge and skills
Referent=identification with person
Power as Dependency
The greater the dependency, the greater the power
A has power over B to the extent that:
A has control over something B values IMPORTANCE
B cannot obtain anywhere else SCARCITY
B cannot easily find substitutes NONSUBSTITUTABILITY
Organizational Politics
Using power beyond formal role to gain rewards
Reasons for Organizational Politics
Scarce resources
Different interests
Ambigious goals and performance outcomes
Techinical and environmental uncertainty
Organizational change
Political Techniques
Controlling information and communication
Controlling agenda and decision-making parameters
Game-playing
Impression Management
Building Coalitions
Elements of Structure
Work specialization
Chain of command
Span of control
Centralization/Decentralization
Formalization
Departmentation
Types of Departmentation
Function
Product
Client
Geography
Organization Designs
Simple
Bureaucracy
Matrix
Virtual
Boundaryless/horizontal
Simple Structure
Authority centralized in owner
Informal-lack of structure
Pros=Inexpensive, Flexible
Cons=Inefficient, dependent on owner
Bureaucracy Structure
Functional departments
Standardized tasks
High formalization and centralization
Pros=efficiency, low labor costs
Cons=coordination problems, rule bound
Matrix Structure
Functional and product departmentation
Two bosses
Pros=Coordination across multiple projects/products, efficient allocation of specialists/professionals
Cons=Confusion & power struggles, leadership skills, stress
Virtual Organization
Small centralized core
Outsource major business functions
Pros=gain scale without mass, flexible and adaptive, quicky access new markets
Cons=loss of control, hard to form and manage, requires trust
Boundaryless/Horizontal Structure
Organize around core processes
Use multi-disciplinary teams to manage processes
Owner for each process
Reduce vertical & horizontal boundaries
Communication via networked computers
Pros=highly flexible & business focused, reduces control and coordination costs
Cons=difficult to implement, requires new skills and methods, new information technology
Determinants of Structure
Strategy=innovation, minimize cost, imitation
Size
Technology:degree of routiness
Environment:degree of uncertainty
Culture
System of shared meanings held by members that distinguish organization from others
Elements of Culture
Values:what's important
Beliefs:how things work
Norms:how members should behave
Strength of Culture
how widely and deeply shared the culture is a measure of how affective it is
Describing and Assessing Organization Culture
Innovation and risk taking
Attention to detail
Outcome Orientation
People Orientation
Team Orientation
Aggressiveness
Stability
Culture's Role in Organization Effectiveness
Efficient communication, coordination and control
Substitute for formalization
Commitment to organization
Success when fits strategy and competitive environment
LIABILITY when it does not=barrier to change, barrier to diversity, barrier to acquisitions and mergers
Formation of Organization Culture
values of founder->selection criteria -> top management AND socialization ... top management -->socialization AND organization culture...socialization-->organization culture
Learn about Organization Culture
Stories
Rituals
Material Symbols
Language
Corporate Strategy
How firm will use its resources to gain competitive advantage
Human Resource Strategy
How firm will use human resources to implement corporate strategy
Human Resource Mangement
Policies and practices used to implement human resource strategy
Human Resource Management
Union-management relations
Selecting right people->training and developing them->assessing their performance->rewarding them->selecting the right people
HR Selection
Key decision makers=managers/everyone
Basis of=validated tests/open exchange of info & realistic job previews
Selection for=specific jobs/teams and corporate culture
Features selected for=ability to do job/ability to learn, needs for involvement and challenge, team skills
HR Training and Development
Why=enable people to perform task/facilitate change, human development, effective task performance
Who=individuals/individuals and teams
What=specific job requirements/broad skills, social skills, system-wide learning
When=as needed/ongoing and intense
How=on the job, classroom/many methods, cross training, team development
HR Performance Appraisal
Appraiser=manager/appraisee, coworkers,manager, and others
Role of Appraisee=recepient of feedback/active participant in all phases
Content=job defined/participant defined
Process=validated measures/negotiation of reality
Timing=periodic/variable depending on purposes
HR Rewards
Communication=secret/open
Decision-making=top down/wide involvement
Pay for performance=individual merit/business success
Reward mix=standardized/individual choice;cafeteria style
Base pay=job based/skill based
HR Union-management relations
Motivation to join=job security and wages/job security wages and quality of work life
Nature of relationship=adversarial/collaborative
Nature of agreement=collective bargaining/collective bargaining and cooperative alliances
Balance of power=asymmetric/symmetric
Dispute settlement=strikes, slowdowns, and grievances/mediation, arbitration, and compromise
Forces for Change
Workforce
Technology
Competition
Social Trends
Political Trends
Types of Organization Change
Incremental + Reactive =Adaptation
Revolutionary + Reactive = Re-creation
Incremental + Anticipatory = Fine Tuning
Revolutionary + Anticipatory = Transformation
Sources of Individual Resitance to Change
Habit
Security
Economic Factors
Fear of Unknown
Selective Information Processing
Sources of Organizational Resistance to Change
Structural Inertia
Limited Focus of Change
Group Inertia
Threats to Expertise, Power, Relationships & Resource Allocation
Overcoming Resistance to Change
Education & Communication
Participation
Facilitation & Support
Negotiation
Manipulation & Cooptation
Coercion
Lewin's Three-Step Change Model
Unfreezing Status Quo (restraining forces [resistance] + driving forces [forces for change])->movement to new state -> refreezing changes (restraining + driving forces)
Organization Development
Goals=improve organization effectiveness
=improve organization's capacity to solve own problems and change itself
Values=respect for people
=trust & support
=power sharing & participation
=openness to information
Organization Development (OD) Interventions
Human Process Interventions=team building
=conflict resolution
Technostructural Interventions=job enrichment &self-managing teams
=employee empowerment
=organization design
Human Resource Management Interventions=Gainsharing & skill-based pay
=career development
Strategic Interventions=organization transformation
=strategic alliances
Organization Development Application Issues
Differences in organization culture
Differences in national cultures
Politics of change
Ethics of control
Center for Effective Organizations
Action Research with Organization=help organization learn to improve itself
=generate new knowledge that can be applied to other organizations
Research scientists and faculty members
Types of projects
=strategic change
=designing high-performing organizations
=team-based organizations
=new reward and selection practices
=organization learning
Traditional Change Methods
Management initiated and controlled
Problem focused
Experts analyze and design solutions
Doers implement solution
Rolled out as packaged change program
Change is discrete event
Problems with traditional change methods
Conflict between experts and doers
Lack of employee buy-in
Too rigid, not adaptive
Limited learning
May solve specific problems but doesn't improve organization's capacity to improve itself
Managing Strategic Change
Felt Need->Vision->Action learning process
Self-design Strategy
Involves multiple stakeholders
Innovation on site
Learning by doing
Continuous change, improvement & learning
Part of normal operations
Action learning cycle
taking action to implement change->collecting pertinent information->diagnosing progress->planning to modify change and how it is implemented
Learning to improve organizations
continually improved performance
action learning cycle->alc->alc
time-------------------->
Organization Design Components
structure
technology & work design systems/organization culture/information & control systems
human resource systems=selection
=training & development
=performance management system
High-performing organizations
Organization structure:flat and lean
Work design:self-managed teams
Information systems:open & distributed
Leadership:visionary
Decision Making:employee empowerment
Training & development:continuous
Selection processes:culture driven
Rewards:performance and skill based
Culture:strong & egalitarian
workforce accomodations:plentiful
Conflict
process that begins when one part perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to negative affect something that the first party cares about

for a conflict to exist, it must be perceived by those involved

this definition is flexible enough to cover a full range from subtle disagreement to violent acts
Views on Conflict
Traditional View=conflict is bad stay away from it
Human relations view=inevitable
Interactionist view=conflict is necessary
Conflict process
Stage 1=potential opposition
-antecedent conditions=communication
=structure
=personal variables

stage 2=cognition and personalization
Perceived conflict & felt conflict-->

stage 3=intentions
conflict-handling intentions
=competition
=collaboration
=accomodation
=avoidance
=compromise

stage 4=behavior
overt conflict
=party's behavior
=other's reaction

Stage 5=outcomes
increased group performance
decreased group performance
Conflict intensity continuum
annihilatory conflict=overt efforts to destroy the other party
-aggressive physical attacks
-threats and ultimatums
-assertive verbal attacks
-overt questioning or challenging of others
-minor disagreements or misunderstanding
no conflict
Two types of negotiation strategies
distributive characteristic
=fixed amount of resources to be divided
=i win you lose
=opposed to each other
=short term relationship

integrative characteristic
=variable amount of resources to be divided
=i win, you win
=convergent or congruent with each other
=long term
Negotiation process
Preparation and planning
Definition of ground rules
Clarification and justification
Bargaining and problem solving
Closure and implementation