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69 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
forces for change
social trends
political trends
types of organization change
incremental revolutionar
reactive adaptation re-creation
anticipatory fine tuning transformation
sources of individual resistance to change
economic factors
fear of unknown
selective information processing
sources of organizational resistance to change
structural inertia
group inertia
threats to expertise/power relationships/ resource allocations
limited focus of change
overcoming resistance to change
education & communication
facilitation & support
manipulation & cooptation
lewin's three step change model
unfreezing status quo
movement to new state
refreezing changes

restraining forces & driving forces
organizationan development
improve organizatoin effectiveness
improve organizations capacity to solve own problems and change itself
organizational development values
respect for people
trust & support
power sharing & participation
openness to information
Organizational development interventions (name 4 types)
human process, technostructural, human resource management, strategic
human process inteventions
team building
conflict resultion
technostructural interventions
job enrichment & self-managing teams
employee empowerment
organization design
human resource management interventions
gainsharing & skill based pay
career development
strategic interventions
organization trasnformation
strategic alliances
organizational development application issues
differences in organization cultlure
differences in national cultures
politics of change
ethics of control
center for effective organizations
action research with organizations
-help organization learn to improve itself, generate new knowledge that can be applied to other organizations

research scientests and faculty members

types of projects: strategic change, designing high-performing organizations, team-based organizations, new reward and selection practices, organization learning
clients of center for effective organizations
honeywell, general mills, johnson & johsnon, verizon, capital one, boeing HP, SBC, Arco, armstrong
traditional change methods
management intiated and controlled
problem focused
experts analyze and design
doers implement solutions
rolled out as packaged change program
change is discrete event
problems with traditional change methods
conflict between experts & doers
lack of employee buy in
too rigid, not adaptive
limited learning
may solve specific problems, but doesn't improve organization's capacity to improve itself
managing strategic change
felt need -> vision -> action learning process
self-design strategy
involves multiple stakeholders
innovation on site
learning by doing
continuous change, improvement & learning
part of normal operations
action learning cycle
planning to modify change & how it is implemented
taking action to implement change
collecting pertinent information
diagnosing progress
learning to improve organization
as time increases and action learning cylce repeats itself, continually improved performance of organization
organizatoin design components
around- structure, information & control systems, human resource systems, technology & work design systems
center- organiztion cultlure
human resource systems- selection, trianing & development, performance management system
high performing organizations
organization structure- flat & lean
work design- self managed teams
information systems- open & distributed
decision making- employee empowerment
training and development- continuous
selection processes- culture driven
rewards- performance & skill based
cultlure- strong & egalitarian
workforce accomodations- plentiful
power definition
ability to influecne others so they do things they would not do otherwise
bases of power (where it comes from )
legitimiate-authority of postiion
referent- identification with person
expert- skills, knowledge & expertise
reward- postiive benefit
power as dependency
the greater the dependency the greater the power
a has power over b to the extent- importance, scarcity, nonsubstitutability
changes in power-dependency: uncertainty absorption
1910s-1950s: can we make it efficiently? production/engineering
1960s-1970s: can we sell it? sales/marketing
1980s: can we finance expansion? financial/legal
1990s: can we innovate and change ourselves? R& D/ HRM
2000s: ???
differences in power-dependency: professions & professionalization
compensation & prestige of professions (Barber vs medical doctor)
need to professionalize: barriesr to entry
business schools & professionalization
organizational politics defintion
using power beyond its formal role to gain rewards
organizational politics reasons
scarce resources
different interests
ambiguous goals/proposed outcomes
technical/environmental uncertainty
organizational change
organizational politics political techniques
controlling information & communication
controlling agenda & decision making parameters
game playing
impression management
building coalitions
conflict: definition
process that begins when one party feels that another party has negatively affected or is about to negatively affect something the first party cares about

for a conflict to exist it must be perceived by those involved

this definition is flexible enough to cover a full range from subtle disagreements to violent acts
traditional view
all conflict is harmful
human relations view
conflict is an inevitable & natural outcome in any group
interactionist view
conflict is not only a positive force in a group but is an absolute necessity for effective grou pperformance
conflict process- 5 stages and parts of each stage
stage I- potential opposition- antecedent conditions: communication, structure, personal variables

Stage II- cognition and personalization- perceived/ felt conflict

stage III- intentions- conflict handing intentions: compromise, competition, collaboration, accomodation, avoidance

Stage IV: behavior: overt conflict- party's behavior, other's reactions

Stage V: Outcomes- increased/decreased group performance
conflict intensity continuum
no conflict->annihilatory conflict
minor disagreements or misunderstanding
overt challenging or questioning of others
assertive verbal attacks
threats and ultimatums
aggressive physical attacks
overt efforts to destroy the other party
two types of negotiation strategies (name them)
distributive, integrative
distributive negotiation strategy
available resources- fixed amount of resources to be divided
primary motivations- i win, you lose
primary interests- opposed to each other
focus of relationships: short term
integrative negotiation strategy
available resources: variable amount of resources to be divided
primary motivation: I win, you win
primary interest: convergent or congruent with each other
focus of relationship: long term
the negotiation process
preparation and planning
definition of ground rules
clarification and justification
bargaining and problem solving
closure and implementation
elements of structure
work specialization
chain of command
span of control
departmentation- four ways
by function
by self-contained unit:
organization designs (five types)
simple structure
simple structure
authority centralized in owner
informal- lack of structure
benefits: inexpensive, flexible
disadvantages: inefficient, dependent on owner
functional departments
standardized rules
high centralization/formalization
benefits: efficiency/low labor costts
disadvantages: coordination problems, rule bound
matrix structure
functional & product departmentation
two bosses
coordination between multiple products/projects
efficient allocation of specialists/professionals
confusion & power struggles
leadership skills
virtual organization
small centralized core
outsource major business functions
gain scale without mass
quickly access new markets
flexible and adaptive
hard to form and manage
requires trust
loss of control
boundaryless or horizontal organizations
organize around core processes (eg new product development)
use multi-disciplinary teams to manage processes
owner for each process
reduce vertical & horizontal boundaries
communicate via networked computers
highly flexible & business focused
reduces control & coordination costs
difficult to implement
requires new skills and methods
new information technology
structural designs: summary (two types)
high formalization, high centralization
size- larger
strategy- minimize cost/immitation
technology- high routine
environment- low uncertainty
low formalization, high decentralization
- simple structure
- matrix structure
- virtual organization
- boundaryless/horizontal organization
size- smaller
strategy-innovation, imitation
technology- low routine
environment- high uncertainty
determinants of structure
strategy (immitation, innovation, minimize cost)
concept of culture- definition
system of shared meaning held by members that distingues organization from others
dominant culture vs subcultures
strength of culture- how widely and deeply it is held
elements of cultlure
values: what is important
beliefs: how things work
norms: how members should behave
describing & assessing organization culture
innovation and risk taking
attention to detail
outcome orientation
people orientation
team orientation
culture's role in organization effectiveness
efficient communication, coordination & control
substitute for formalization
commitment to organization
success when fits strategy and competitive environment
liability when it does not- barrier to change, diversity, acquisitions & mergers
formation of organization cultlure
values of founder (philosophy)-> selection criteria-> top management, socialization -> organization cultlure
learn about organization cultlure
material symbols
corporate strategy
how firm will use its resources to gain competitive advantage
human resources strategy
how firm will use human resources to implement corporate strategy
human resource management
policies and practices used to implement human resource strategy
human resource management cycle
selecting the right people, training & developing them, assessing their performance, rewarding them

center- union management relations
selection chart
training & development chart
performance appraisal chart
rewards chart
union-management relations