Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

275 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Absolute Zero
The Point at Which there is no heat energy or kinetic energy
0 degrees Kalvin
-273.16 degrees Celsius
Arrhenius Base
A Substance that increases the concentration of hydroxide ions in aqueous solution
Activation Energy
The minimum amount of energy required to start a chemical reaction
Actual Yield
The measured amount of a product of a reaction
Alkali Metal
One of the elements of Group 1 of the periodic Table
(Lithium, Sodium, Potassium, Rubidium, Cesium and Francium)
Alkaline Metal
One of the elements of Group 2 f the periodic table (Beryllium, Magnesium, Calcium, Strontium, Barium and Radium)
Alpha particle
A Positively Charged atom that is released in the disintegration of radioactive elements and that consists of two protons and two neutrons
Amorphous Solid
A solid in which the particles are not arranged with periodicity or order
These solids will flow like a liquid
Describes a substance, such as water, that has the properties of an acid and the properties of a base
Arrhenius acid
A substance that increases the concentration of hydronium ions in aqueous solution
The smallest unit of an element that maintains the chemical properties of that element
Atomic Mass Unit
A Unit of Mass that describes the mass of an atom or molecule; it is exactly one twelfth of the mass of a carbon atom with mass number 12
Atomic Number
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom; the atomic number is the same for all atoms of an element
Atomic Radius
One-half of the distance between the center of identical atoms that are not bonded together
Avogadro's number
6.02 x 10^23, the number of atoms or molecules in 1 mole
Beta Particle
A charged electron emitted during certain types of radioactive decay, such as beta decay
Binary Acid
An acid that does not contain oxygen, such as a hydrofluoric acid
Bond Energy
The energy required to break the bonds in 1 mole of a chemical compound
Boiling Point
The temperature and pressure at which a liquid and a gas are in equilibrium
Boiling Point Elevation
The difference between the boiling point of a liquid in pure state and the boiling point of a liquid in solution; the increase depends on the amount of solute particles present
A mixture consisting of tiny particles that are intermediate in size between those in solutions and those in suspension and that are suspended in a liquid, solid, or gas
Boyle's Law
The Law that states that for a fixed amount of gas at a constant temperature, the volume of the gas increases as the pressure of the gas decreases and the volume of the gas decreases as the pressure of the gas increases
Bronsted-Lowry Acid/Bases
Acid: A substance that donates a proton to another substance
Base: A substance that accepts a proton
A device used to measure the energy as heat absorbed or released in a chemical or physical change
A substance that changes the rate of a chemical reaction without being consumed or changed significantly
Charles's Law
The Law that states that for a fixed amount of gas at constant pressure, the volume of the gas increases as the temperature of the gas increases and the volume of the gas decreases as the temperature of the gas decreases
Any substance that has a defined composition
Chemical Equation
A representation of a chemical reaction that uses symbols to show the relationship between the reactants and the products
Chemical Change
A change that occurs when one or more substances change into entirely new substances with different properties
Chemical Equilibrium
A state of balance in which the rate of a forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction and the concentration of products and reactants remain unchanged
Chemical Formula
A combination of chemical symbols and numbers to represent a substance
Chemical Property
A property of matter that describes a substance's ability to participate in chemical reactions
Chemical Reaction
The process by which one or more substances change to produce one or more different substances
The scientific study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter and the changes that mater undergoes
Colligative Properry
A property that is determined by the number of particles present in a system but that is independent of the properties of the particles themselves
Combined Gas Law
The relationship between the pressure, volume and temperature of a fixed amount of gas
A substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds
the amount of a particular substance in a given quantity of a mixture, solution or ore
Conjugate Acid/Base
Acid: an acid that forms when a base gains a proton
Base: a base that forms when an acid loses a proton
Covalent Bond
A bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
Critical Point
The Temperature and Pressure at which the gas and liquid states of a substance become identical and form one phase
A solid whose atoms, ions, or molecules are arranged in a definite pattern
The change of state from a gas directly to a solid
Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure
The Law that states that the total pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the component gases
The ratio of the mass of a substance to the volume of a substance; often expressed as grams per cubic centimeter for solids and liquids and as grams per liter for gases
Derived Unit
A unit of measure that is a combination of other measurements
Electron Configuration
The arrangement of electrons in an atom
The Movement of Particles from regions of higher density to regions of lower density
A molecule or a part of a molecule that contains both positively and negatively charged regions
A measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons
Diprotic Acid
An acid that has two ionizable hydrogen atoms in each molecule, such as sulfuric acid
The separating of a molecule into simpler molecules, atoms, radicals, or ions
The ability of a substance to be hammered thin or drawn out into a wire
The passage of a gas under pressure through a tiny opening
Electromagnetic Spectrum
All of the frequencies or wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation
Electron Affinity
The energy needed to remove an electron from a negative ion to form a neutral atom or molecule
A substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means; all atoms of an element have the same atomic number
Empirical Formula
A Chemical Formula that shows the composition of a compound in terms of the relative numbers and kinds of atoms in the simplest ratio
Enthalpy Change
The amount of energy released or absorbed as heat by a system during a process at constant pressure
A measure of the randomness or disorder of a system
In chemistry, the state in which a chemical reaction and the reverse chemical reaction occur at the same rate such that the concentrations of reactants and products do not change
The change of a substance from a liquid to a gas
Extensive Propety
A property that depends on the extent or size of a system
A non-solid state of matter in which the atoms or molecules are free to move past each other, as in a gas or liquid
Formula Mass
The sum of the average atomic masses of all atoms represented in a formula of any molecule, formula unit, or ion
Free Energy
Th energy in a system that is available for work; a system's capacity to do useful work
Freezing Point
The temperature at which a solid and liquid are in equilibrium at 1 atm pressure; the temperature at which a liquid substance freezes
Freezing Point Depression
The difference between the freezing points of a pure solvent and a solution, which is directly proportional to the amount of solute present
The number of cycles or vibrations per unit of time; also the number of waves produced in a given amount of time
A form of matter that does not have a definite volume or shape
Gay-Lussac's Law
The Law that states that the volume occupied by a gas at a constant pressure is directly proportional to the absolute temperature
A Vertical Column of Elements in the Periodic Table; Elements in a group share chemical properties
The time required for half of a sample of a radioactive substance to disintegrate by radioactive decay or by natural processes
The part of a reaction that involves only oxidation or reduction
One of the elements of Group 17 (Florine, Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine, and Astatine); Halogens combined with most metals to form salts
A substance that forms in a middle stage of a chemical reaction and is considered a stepping stone between the parent substance and the final product
Intensive Property
A property that does not depend on the amount of matter present, such as pressure, temperature, or density
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
The Principle that states that determining both the position and velocity of an electron or any other particle simultaneously is impossible
Hess's Law
The Overall Enthalpy change in a reaction is equal to the sum of the enthalpy changes for the individual steps in the process
Composed of dissimilar components
Describes something that has a uniform structure or composition throughout
Hund's Rule
The rule that states that for an atom in the ground state, the number of unpaired electrons is the maximum possible and these unpaired electrons have the same spin
The mixing of two or more atomic orbitals of the same atom to produce new orbitals; hybridization represents the mixing of higher- and lower-energy orbitals to form orbitals of intermediate energy
Hydrogen Bond
The intermolecular force occurring when a hydrogen atom that is bonded to a highly electronegative atom of one molecule is attracted to two unshared electrons of another molecule
Hydronium Ion
An ion consisting of a proton combined with a molecule of water' H3O+
Ideal Gas
An imaginary gas whose particles are infinitely small and do not interact with each other
Lewis Structure
A structural formula in which electrons are represented by dots; dot pairs or dashes between two atomic symbols represent pairs in covalent bonds
An atom, radical, or molecule that has gained or lost one or more electrons and has a negative or positive charge
Ionic Bond
A force that attracts electrons from one atom to another, which transforms a neutral atom into an ion
Ionic Compound
A compound composed of ions bound together by electrostatic attraction
The process of adding or removing electrons from an atom or molecule, which gives the atom or molecule a net charge
The unit used to express energy; equivalent to the amount of work done by a force of 1 Newton acting through a distance of 1 meter in the direction of the force
Kinetic Molecular Theory
A theory that explains that the behavior of physical systems depends on the combined actions of the molecules constituting the system
Ionization Energy
The energy required to remove an electron from an atom or ion
One of two or more compounds that have the same chemical composition but different structures
An atom that has the same number of protons (or the same atomic number) as other atoms of the same element do but that has a different number of neutrons
Lattice Energy
The energy associated with constructing a crystal lattice relative to the energy of all constituent atoms separated by infinite distances
Law of Conservation of Mass
The Law that states that mass cannot be created or destroyed in ordinary chemical and physical changes
Law of Definite Proportions
The Law that states that a chemical compound always contains the same elements in exactly the same proportion by weight or mass
Lewis Acid/Base
Acid: An atom, ion, or molecule that accepts a pair of electrons
Base: An atom, ion, or molecule that donates a pair of electrons
Limiting Reagent
The Substance that controls the quantity of a product that can form in a chemical reaction
London Dispersion Force
The intermolecular attraction resulting from the uneven distribution of electrons and the creation of temporary dipoles
The SI base unit used to measure the amount of a substance whose number of particles is the same as the number of atoms of carbon in exactly 12 g of carbon-12
Main-Group Element
An element in the s-block or p-block of the periodic table
The ability of a substance to be hammered or beaten into a sheet
A measure of the amount of matter in an object
Mass Number
The sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons that make up the nucleus of an atom
Anything that has mass and takes up space
Melting point
The temperature and pressure at which a solid becomes a liquid
An element that is shiny and that conducts heat and electricity well
An element that has properties of both metals and nonmetals; sometimes referred to as a semiconductor
Describes two or more liquids that can dissolve into each other in various proportions
A combination of two or more substances that are not chemically combined
A concentration unit of a solution expressed as moles of solute dissolved per liter of solution
The concentration of a solution expressed in moles of solute per kilogram of solvent
Molar Mass
The mass in grams of 1 mole of a substance
Molecular Formula
A Chemical formula that shows the number and kinds of atoms in a molecule, but not the arrangement of the atoms
The smallest unit of a substance that keeps all of the physical and chemical properties of that substance; it can consist of one atom or two or more atoms bonded together
Monatomic Ion
An ion formed from a single atom
Monoprotic Acid
An acid that can donate only one proton to a base
A region in an atom where there is a high probability of finding elecons
The reaction of the ions that characterize acids (hydronium ions) and the ions that characterize bases (hydroxide ions) to form water molecules and a salt
Noble Gas
One of the elements of Group 18 of the periodic table (Helium, Neon, Argon, Krypton, Xenon, and Radon); Noble gases are unreactive
Noble Gas Configuration
An outer main energy level fully occupied, in most cases, by eight electrons
A naming system
Nuclear Fission
The splitting of the nucleus of a large atom into two or more fragments; releases additional neutrons and energy
Nuclear Fusion
The Combination of the nuclei of small atoms to form a larger nucleus; releases energy
Nuclear Forces
The interaction that binds protons and neutrons, protons and protons, and neutrons and neutrons together in a nucleus
A proton or neutron
A value that is used to express the acidity or alkalinity (basicity) of a system; each whole number on the scale indicates a tenfold change in acidity; a pH of 7 is neutral; a pH of less than 7 is acidic, and a pH of greater than 7 is basic
Organic Compound
A covalently bonded compound that contains carbon, excluding carbonates and oxides
The diffusion of water or another solvent form a more dilute solution to a more concentrated solution though a membrane that is permeable to the solvent
A reaction that removes one or more electrons from a substance such that the substance's valance or oxidation state increases
Oxidation Number
The number of electrons that must be added to or removed from an atom in a combined state to convert the atom into the elemental form
Oxidation State
The condition of an atom expressed by the number of electrons that the atom needs to reach its elemental form
Oxidation-Reduction Reaction
Any chemical change in which one species is oxidized and another species is reduced; also called redox reaction
Oxidizing Agent
The substance that gains electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction and that is reduced
An acid that is a compound of hydrogen, oxygen, and a third element, usually a nonmetal
A liquid or solid substance or mixture that does not allow an electric current
The negative of the common logarithm of the hydroxide ion concentration of a solution
Partial Pressure
The pressure of each gas in a mixture
Percentage Error
A figure that is calculated by subtracting the accepted value from the experimental value, dividing the difference by the accepted value, and then multiplying by 100
Pauli Exclusion Principle
The Principle that states that two particles of a certain class cannot be in exactly the same energy state
Percent Yield
The ratio of the actual yield to the theoretical yield, multiplied by 100
A horizontal row of elements in the periodic table
Percentage Composition
The percentage by mass of each element in a compound
Periodic Table
An arrangement of the elements in order of their atomic umbers such that the elements with similar properties fall in the same column, or group
One of the four states or conditions in which a substance can exist; solid, liquid, gas or plasma; a part of matter that is uniform
Phase Diagram
A graph of the relationship between the physical state of a substance and the temperature and pressure of the substance
A unit or quantum of light; a particle of electromagnetic radiation that has zero rest mass and carries a quantum of energy
Physical Change
A change of matter from one form to another without a change in chemical properties
Physical Property
A characteristic of a substance that does not involve a chemical change, such as density, color or hardness
Describes a molecule in which the positive and negative charges are separated
Polar-Covalent Bond
A covalent bond in which a pair of electrons shared by two atoms is held more closely by one atom
Polyatomic Ion
An ion made of two or more atoms
Polyprotic Acid
An acid that can donate more than one proton per molecule
A solid that is produced as a result of a chemical reaction in solution
The amount of force exerted per unit area of surface
Principle Quantum Number
The quantum number that indicates the energy and orbital of an electron n an atom
A substance that forms in a chemical reaction
The basic unit of electromagnetic energy; it characterizes the wave properties of electrons
Quantum Number
A number that specifies certain properties of electrons
Radioactive Decay
The disintegration of an unstable atomic nucleus into one or more different nuclides, accompanied by the emission of radiation, the nuclear capture or ejection of electrons, or fission
Rate Determining Step
In a multi step chemical reaction, the step that has the lowest velocity, which determines the rate of the overall reaction
Rate Law
The expression that shows how the rate of formation of product depends on the concentration of all species other than the solvent that take part in a reaction
A substance or molecule that participated in a chemical reaction
Reaction Mechanism
The way in which a chemical reaction takes place; expressed in a series of chemical equations
Reaction Rate
The rate at which a chemical reaction takes place; measured by the rate of formation of the product or the rate of disappearance of the reactants
Real Gas
A gas that does not behave completely like a hypothetical ideal gas because of the interactions between gas molecules
A chemical change in which electrons are gained, either by the removal of oxygen, the addition of hydrogen, or the addition of electrons
Reducing Agent
A substance that has the potential to reduce another substance
Reduction Potential
The decrease in voltage that takes place when a positive ion becomes less positive or neutral or when a neutral atom becomes negative ion
The bonding in molecules or ions that cannot be correctly represented by a single Lewis structure
An ionic compound that forms when a metal atom or a positive radical replaces the hydrogen of an acid
Saturated Hydrocarbon
An organic compound formed only by carbon and hydrogen linked by single bonds
Scientific Notation
A method of expressing a quantity as a number multiplied by 10 to the appropriate power
A radiation-absorbing material that is used to decrease radiation leakage from nuclear reactors
Significant Figure
A prescribed decimal place that determines the amount of rounding off to be done based on the precision of the measurement
The ability of one substance to dissolve in another at a given temperature and pressure; expressed in terms of the amount of solute that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent to produce a saturated solution
In a solution, The substance that dissolves in the solvent
In a solution, The substance in which the solute dissolves
Specific Heat
The quantity of heat required to raise a unit mass of homogeneous material 1 K or 1 degree C in a specified way given constant pressure and volume
Spectator Ion
Ions that are present in a solution in which a reaction is taking place but that do not participate in the reaction
Standard Temperature and Pressure for a gas, the temperature of 0 C and the pressure of 1.00 atm
Structural Formula
A formula that indicates the location of the atoms, groups, or ions relative to one another in a molecule and that indicates the number and location of chemical bonds
Supersaturated Solution
A solution that holds more dissolved solute than is required to reach equilibrium at a given temperature
A mixture in which particles of a material are more or less evenly disperse throughout a liquid or gas
A measure of how hot something is; specifically, a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in an object
Theoretical Yield
The maximum amount of product that can be produced from a given amount of reactant
The branch of chemistry that is the study of the energy changes that accompany chemical reactions and changes of state
A method to determine the concentration of a substance in solution by adding a solution of known volume and concentration until the reaction is completed, which is usually indicated by a change in color
Transition Element
One of the metals that can use the inner shell before using the outer shell to bond
Triple Point
The temperature and pressure conditions at which the solid, liquid, and gaseous phases of a substance coexist at equilibrium
Unsaturated Solution
A solution that contains less solute than a saturated solution and that is able to dissolve additional solute
Word Equation
An equation in which the reactants and the products in a chemical reaction are represented by words
Valence Electron
An electron that is found in the outermost shell of an atom and that determines the atom's chemical properties
VESPR theory
A theory that predicts some molecular shapes based on the idea that pairs of valence electrons surrounding an atom repel each other
The distance from any point on a wave to an identical point on the next wave
Weak Acid
An acid that releases few hydrogen ions in aqueous solution
Weak Electrolyte
A compound that dissociates only to a small extent in aqueous solution
Acid-Base Indicator
A substance that changes color depending on the pH of the solution that the substance is in
Bond Energy
The energy required to break a chemical bond and form neutral isolated atoms
Bong Length
The distance between two bonded atoms at their minimal potential energy
Diatomic Molecule
A molecule containing only two Ions
Ideal Gas Law
The mathematical relationship among pressure, volume and temperature and the number of moles of a gas
Inner-Shell electron
Electrons that are not in the highest occupied energy level
Intermolecular Force
The Forces of attraction between molecules
Le Chatelier's Principle
The Principle that states that if a system at equilibrium is subjected to a stress, the equilibrium is shifted in the direction that tends to relieve the stress
Lone Pair
A pair of electrons that is not involved in bonding and that belongs exclusively to one atom
Unshared Pair
A pair of electrons that is not involved in bonding and that belongs exclusively to one atom
Octet Rule
The Rule that states that chemical compounds tend to form so that each atom, by gaining, losing, or sharing electrons, has an octet of electrons in its highest occupied energy level
Solve to the correct number of significant digits
Solve to the correct number of significant digits
Solve to the correct number of significant digits
Solve to the correct number of significant digits
Solve to the correct number of significant digits
Name the five areas of Chemistry
Analytical, Inorganic, Organic,Physical, Biochemical
Name this compound
Calcium Nitrate
Name this compound
Tungsten Chloride
Name this compound
Ammonium Phosphate
Name this compound
Sulfur Dioxide
Write the chemical formula for this compound
Potassium Sulfate
Write the chemical formula for this compound
Dinitrogen Pentoxide
Write the chemical formula for this compound
Lead (II) Acetate
What is the percent composition of sodium carbonate?
Na= 43%
C= 11%
A sample of a compound contains 40% sulfur and 60% oxygen. What is the compound's empirical formula?
Give an Example of a Chemical Property
Give an Example of a Chemical Change
Iron Rusting
Give an Example of a Physical Property
Give an Example of a Physical Change
Cutting a Piece of Wood
Give an Example of an Intensive physical property
Give an Example of an external Physical Property
Give an Example of an Element
Give an Example of a Compound
Give an Example of Homogeneous Matter
Soft Drinks
Give an Example of Heterogeneous Matter
Give an Example of a Solution
Salt Water
Give an Example of a Suspension
List the Properties of a Metal
Chemically reactive, Shiny, Has high density, is Ductile and Malleable, Has a High Melting Point, is Hard and Conducts Electricity, Heat and Sound Well
List the Properties of a Nonmetal
Conducts Heat and Electricity poorly, forms acid oxides, is Dull and Brittle, has low Density and Melting Point but High Electronegativity, Little or No Luster
Give an Example of a Metal
Give an Example of a Nonmetal
Give an Example of a Metaloid
Give an Example of an element from Period 3
Give an Example of an element from Group 14
Give an Example of an element from the Chalcogen family
Give an Example of an Element from the Halogen Family
Florine (Group 17)
Give an Example of an Element from the Transition metals
Cadmium (D-Block)
Give an Example of an Element from the Alkali metals
Potassium (Group 1)
Give an Example of an Element from Alkaline metals
Beryllium (Group 2)
Give an Example of an Element from Noble Gasses
Give an Example of an Element from the S fillers
Helium (Groups 1 & 2)
Give an Example of an Element from the P fillers
Carbon (Groups 13-18)
Give an Example of an Element from the D fillers
Chromium (Transition Metals)
Give an Example of an Element from F fillers
A Solid has a mass of 4.0g and a volume of 6.0cm. What is its density?
A Sample with a density of 2/3 has a mass of 45.0g. What is its volume?
67.5 cm
How many protons are found in the nucleus of a silver atom (Atomic Number- 47)?
How many electrons are found in an atom of mercury (Atomic Number- 80)
How many neutrons are in the nucleus of arsenic-75?
What is the Atomic Mass of Iron?
What is the Molecular Mass of Carbon Dioxide?
44 g/mol
How many moles of NH3 are in a 56.0g sample?
3.3 mol
How many molecules are present in a 56.0g sample of NH3?
2 x 10^24
How many atoms of oxygen are represented by the expression 4Fe3(PO4)2
What is the mass of 3.5 moles of LiNO3?
69 g
What is the mass of 4.78 x 10^24 Molecules of O2?
256 g
What is the frequency of light which has a wavelength of 3.4 x 10^-9 m?
What is the energy found in 1 photon of light which has a wavelength of 3.4 x 10^-9 m?
5.82 x 10^-17
What element has the electron configuration of 1s2 2s2p6 3s2p6 4s1 3d5?
How many electrons can be held by the 3rd energy level?
What is the maximum number of electrons which can be held in the s sublevel?
What is the maximum number of electrons which can be held in the p sublevel?
What is the maximum number of electrons which can be held in the d sublevel?
What is the maximum number of electrons which can be held in the f sublevel?