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59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
basal ganglia are part of which region of the brain?
what makes up the lentiform nucleus?
putamen and globus pallidus
what makes up the striatum?
caudate and putamen
where do the extrapyramidal motor pathways originate?
basal ganglia
what is the function of the dorsal thalamus
the dorsal thalamus is a sensory relay station which receives all ascending sensory information and relays it to the primary sensory cortex.
parts of the mesencephalon
superior and inferior colliculi
cerebral peduncles
parts of the myencephalon
medulla and spinal cord
parts of the metencephalon
pons and cerebellum
what separates:
1. frontal and parietal
2. frontal and temporal
3. parietal and occipital
1. F/P - central sulcus
2. F/T - lateral sulcus
3. P/O - parietooccipital sulcus
what do the prosencephalon, mesencephalon, and rhombencephalon develop into?
prosencephalon - telencephalon and diencephalon

mesencephalon -

rhombencephalon - metencephalon, myencephalon
what does babinski sign signify in babies and adults
babies- corticospinal tract not yet fully myelinated

adults - lesion somewhere in cortiospinal tract
where do we become aware of sensations?
primary sensory cortex (areas 3,1,2)
where do we understand our sensations
sensory association cortex (areas 5 & 7)
where do we understand how to use our bodies physically?
motor association cortex (area 6)
what areas of the cortex are affected most in alzheimers?
association cortex (motor, sensory, visual, auditory, etc)
what area allows us to understand what we hear?
auditory association cortex (area 22 in the superior temporal gyrus)
what area receives auditory information?
primary auditory cortex (41,42)
anterior and posterior transverse temporal gyri (gyri of heschle)
damage to what part of the brain would produce hemi-neglect on the dominant side of the body
areas 5&7 (sensory ass. cortex) on right side (non dominant only)
where do we become aware of things we see?
primary visual cortex (17) on both sides of calcarine fissure
what area allows us to talk?
broca's speech area (triangular and opercular parts of inferior frontal gyrus on dom. side)

areas 44 and 45
what forms the blood supply of the pre and post central gyri?
middle cerebral artery
are the cerebral peduncles part of the brainstem?
they are part of the midbrain, so they are part of the brainstem

telencephalon definitely not brainstem and diencephalon usually not included with the brainstem
what does damage to the right and left frontal lobes cause?
left - depression

right - mania
where is amygdala located?
amygdala is w/in the uncus, which is the most medial portion of the temporal lobe, medial to the parahippocampal gyrus
what could a massive subdural bleed in the region of the uncus cause?
uncal herniation - the uncus is forced through the tentorial notch and it compresses the brainstem cutting off all ascending and descending pathways!!!!
components of the limbic lobe
cingulate gyrus
what structure is MOST associated with the formation of new memories
the hippocampal formation
when and how does the frontal lobe become dominant over the limbic lobe?
when the prefrontal cortex is fully myelinated at age 22-23
what is the last part of our brain to become fully myelinated
the prefrontal cortex
where is the prefrontal cortex located?
everything rostral to the motor association area (6) is prefrontal cortex
which part of the brain allows for intellectually creative abilities and abstract thought?
the prefrontal cortex
which parts of the 2 hemispheres does the corpus callosum not connect?
the middle and inferior temporal gyri (connected by anterior commisure)
what does the anterior commissure do?
connect the middle and inferior temporal gyri
what connects areas of the cortex w/in the same hemisphere
association bundles
what is the visceral association cortex
the isle of reil
the insular cortex
what is the rhinencephalon?
the limbic lobe (nose brain)
what plugs the rostral tip of the lateral ventricles?
the amygdala
what part of the brain is involved in the tastes of food?
the limbic lobe

also sex, emotions, formation of new memories
What are the parts of the Papez Circuit
Parahippocampal gyrus
Short association bundles
The hippocampus
mammillary bodies
mammilothalamic tract
anterior nucleus of the dorsal thalamus
anterior thalamic radiations
cingulate gyrus
the cingulum (a long ass. bundle)
the hippocampal gyrus
short association bundles
the hippocampus

Papez circuit contains stuctures in all 4 lobes

can be stimulated from many different cortical areas via long association bundles
(F,P,T to cingulate gyrus)
(O to T lobe)
why does alzheimer's disease result in inability to create new memories?
amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles damage the papez circuit in the hippocampal formation.
what forms the olfactory tracts?
the axons of mitral cells
5 components of the medial olfactory area

Septum Pellucidum
Paired Olfactory Area of Broca
Subcallosal gyrus
Medial Portion of the Olfactory Trigone
Anterior Perforated Substance
path of the medial olfactory tract (6 parts)
1.medial olfactory tract
2.medial olfactory area (5 parts)
3.medial forebrain bundle
4.ventral medial hypothalamic nucleus
5.dorsal longitudinal fasciculus
6.cranial nuclei involved in feeding
3 places where lateral olfactory tract terminates
1. prepiriform cortex (goes directly into telencephalon)
2. anterior perforated substance
3. cortical medial amygdaloid nucleus
a. basolateral amygdaloid nucleus
b. hippocampal gyrus
c. the hippocampus
d. papez circuit
what kind of lesion might result in placidity, hypersexuality, or apathy?
bilateral lesion of the amygdala!!
wtf is sham rage?
associated w/ damage to the amygdaloid nuclei

uncontrollable rage
what does amygdalohypothalamic pathway do?
allows memories we accumulate over time to influence other pathways down to the brainstem...
what is the transition zone b/t the neocortex in the parahippocampal gyrus and the archecortex in the hippocampus?
2 parts of the hippocampal formation
cornua ammonis
dentate gyrus

(they interlock)
what is the name of the bundle that runs the length of the hippocampal formation and merges into the fornix?
what is the area most affected by amyloid plaques in alzheimer's disease?
cornua ammonis
what connects the oculomotor nucleus and the abducens nucleus?
medial longitudinal fasciculus
why do chronic alcoholics develop wernicke's disease?
they have malabsorption of thiamine
what is wernicke's disease and some symptoms
due to thiamine deficiency / chronic alcholism

1. paralysis of abducens nuclei bilaterally --> strabismus, nystagmus

2. ataxia of gate (vermeal atrophy)
why would giving a wernicke's disease pt glucose be a bad idea?
they have a thiamine deficiency and that would use up the last of their thiamine.
what is korsakoff's psychosis?
due to chronic alcoholism
small peticial hemorrhages, especially in the MAMILLARY BODIES (papez!)

1. long and short term memory loss
2. confabulation
what is kluver bucy syndrome?
bilateral damage to the medial temporal lobes

often due to herpes encephalitis, which preferentially attacks the medial temporal lobe, hippocampal formation and amygdala

profound dementia
psychic blindness (long association bundles from visual ass cortex into temporal lobe are damaged)
sexual changes (medial temporal lobe/amygdala is involved)
what causes paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis and what are its signs/symptoms?
PLE - all types of cancer (not just oat cell carcinoma) can develop this. anti-Hu antibodies are formed. these attack neurons throughout the medial temporal lobe (limbic system)

bizarre psychiatric symptoms
1. delusional / hallucinating
2. disorganized in thoughts
where do chronic schizophrenics have reduced volume in their cortex?
dominant (left) superior temporal gyrus. miswired areas in planum temporali.
auditory ass cortex??

also in insular cortex (feel dead inside)