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107 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Sensory receptors _____ the energy of a stimulus into electrical signals
transduce
Any detectable change in the environment is called a ______
stimulus
A ____ _____ is a specialized ending of a sensory neuron or one or more specialized cells in close contact with a sensory neuron
sensory receptor
Electrical signals are the ____ ____ of the nervous system
information currency
What are the sense organs?
eyes, ears, nose and taste buds
_____ ____ is the process of selecting, interpreting and organizing sensory information
sensory perception
_____ respond to visible wavelengths of light and transduce light energy
photoreceptors
_____ are activated when they change shape as a result of being pushed or pulled and transduce mechanical energy.
mechanoreceptors
Mechanoreceptors convert mechanical forces directly into ____ ____
electrical signals
____ transduce the energy of certain chemical compounds
chemorecepters
_____ respond to thermal infrared energy
thermoreceptors
____ are pain receptors that respond to stimuli that could damage the body
NOCIceptors

noci = pain
____ is our dominant and most refined sense
vision
____ vision helps us judge distances and depth
binocular
Tears flow at all times from the ___ ____
lacrimal glands
What is the instrument used to open up the lacrimal glands of infants who don't shed tears?
nasal lacrimal probe
The white of the eye is the ____
sclera
The sclera joins the _____
cornea
The ____ is the transparent layer that covers the iris and the pupil at the front of the eye; aka the "window of the eye"
cornea
The sclera is covered by the _____
cojunctiva
The moist mucous membrane that extends as a continuous lining of the inner layer of the eyelids
conjunctiva
The second layer of the eye is the ____ made of black pigment cells that absorb light rays
choroid
The anterior cavity between the cornea and the lens is filled with ___ ____
aqueous humor
The posterior cavity between the lens and the retina is filed with a viscous fluid called ____ ___
vitreous humor
An abnormal accumulation of aqueous humor results in ____; increased pressure in the eye that damages the retina and optic nerve; inherited condition - loss of peripheral vision - "tunnel vision"
glaucoma
The ____, the colored part of the eye, is a muscle that regulates that amount of light entering the eye
iris
In the iris, one set of muscles is arranged circularly to contract and ____ the size of the pupil
decrease
In the iris, one set of muscles is arranged radially and contracts to ____ the size of the pupil
increase
The black spot, or opening in the center of the circular muscles of the iris, is the ____ of the eye
pupil
What class of drugs will constrict pupils?
narcotics
The ____ of the eye is an adjustable, transparent, elastic ball that lies just behind the iris
lens
The ____ refracts the light rays coming in and brings them to a focus on the retina
lens
A cloudy or dark lens is an indication of ______; the black part becomes white and is known as a "waterfall"
cataracts
Positioning the eyeballs is the function of the coordinated and precise actions of the six ____ ____ that control the movement of each eye
extrinsic muscles
The _____ _____ of the eye originates from outside the eye
extrinsic muscles
_____ is the ability of the eye to change focus for near or far vision by changing the shape of the lens
accommodation
Accommodation is the function of the _____ muscle
ciliary
The _____ _____ are gland-like folds that project toward the lens and secrete aqueous humor
ciliary processes
The lens is attached to the ciliary muscles by tiny fibers that make up the ____ ____
suspensory ligament
To focus on objects that are near, the ciliary muscles ____
contract
To focus on distant objects, the ciliary muscles ____
relax
With aging, the lens loses some of its elasticity and cannot adjust as well to bring objects into focus in a condition known as ______ or loss of accommodation
presbyopia
The ____, the innermost layer of the eye contains rods and cones
retina
The cones of the retina are responsible for ____ vision and vision during the ____
color
day
The _____ of the retina are responsible mainly for vision in dim light or darkness
rods
The cones are most concentrated in the ____
fovea
The ____ is a small depression in the center of the posterior region of the retina and is the region of sharpest vision
fovea
_____ = "eagle eye" - area of central vision
macula
Photoreceptors synapse on ____ cells
bipolar
Bipolar cells make synaptic contact with ____ cells
ganglion
The axons of the ganglion cells extend across the surface of the retina and unite to form the ____ ____
optic nerve
The area where the optic nerve passes out of the eyeball is the ____ ____
optic disc
The ____ ____ is known as the "blind spot" because it lacks rods and cones
optic disc
The pigment ____ is responsible for the ability to see
rhodopsin
When exposed to light, rhodopsin breaks down into ____ and ____
opsin
retinal
The optic nerves cross in the floor of the hypothalamus, forming an X-shaped structure called the ____ ____
optic chiasm
The ____ is the outer ear that projects from the side of the head
pinna
The ear canal or ____ ____ ____ leads to the middle ear
external auditory meatus
The lining of the ear canal contains ____ ___ that secrete earwax
ceruminous glands
The ___ ____ or eardrum, separates the middle ear from the external ear
tympanic membrane
The ____ ___ is a small, moist cavity in the temporal bone
middle ear
Three small bones or ___ ____ reside in the middle ear
auditory ossicles
At the rear of the cavity, the middle ear opens into the ___ ____ of the temporal bone
mastoid process
Usually air pressure is equalized on the two sides of the tympanic membrane by the ____ ____
eustachian tube
The ____ ____ connects the middle ears and the nasopharynx
eustachian tube
Name the three auditory ossicles
mallus (hammer)
incus (anvil)
stapes (stirrup)
The auditory ossicles form a chain from the tympanic membrane to the ____ ____, a small membrane between the middle and inner ears
oval window
The auditory ossicles act as three interconnected _____ that help ____ vibrations
levers
amplify
The inner ear contains_______ that convert sound waves to nerve impulses
mechanoreceptors
The inner ear is a ____ ____ composed of three compartments
bony labyrinth
The bony labyrinth of the ear contains a fluid called _____
perilymph
The _____ is a snail shaped portion of the inner ear that contains the organs of Corti
cochlea
The ____ ___ ____ are sound receptors that contain sensory cells that respond to sound waves by stimulating the cochlear nerve
organs of Corti
Each organ of Corti contains about ____ hair cells
18,000
_____ depends on frequency of sound waves, or number of vibrations per second and is expressed as hertz
pitch
The human ear is equipped to register sound frequencies between ____ and ____ Hz
20 - 20,000
We are most sensitive to sounds between ____ and ____ Hz
1000 - 4000
Loud sounds cause resonance waves of greater _____ (height)
amplitude
Variations in the ___ of sound depend on the number and kinds of overtones produced
quality
_____ are responsible for our sense of smell and taste
chemoreceptors
_____, or the sense of smell is the function of chemoreceptor cells
olfaction
_____ are chemical substances that can be smelled and dissolve in the mucus on the surface of the olfactory epithelium
odorants
Odors detected by the olfactory epithelium are transmitted by the ____ _____ to the olfactory cortex in the _____ lobe
olfactory nerves
temporal
We can detect at least ____ main groups of odors
seven
We can perceive about _____ different scents
10,000
____ is the sense of taste
gustation
Taste buds are found mainly in _____
papillae
Tiny elevations on the tongue are called
papillae
Name the five main tastes
sweet, sour, salty, bitter and glutamate
The ____ ____ include the receptors that respond to touch, pressure, vibration, pain, changes in temp. and muscle stretch
general senses
Thousands of specialized _____ receptors are in the skin
tactile
______ are free nerve endings that allow us to detect temp. changes
thermoreceptors
The sensory neurons release the neurotransmitter _____ and ______ __
glutamate
substance P.
_____ relieve pain by blocking the release of substance P
opiates
More than ____ opiates are in the brain, spinal cord and pituitary gland
10
Endogenous opiates such as beta-endorphin and enkephalin are thought to inhibit certain neurons in the ____ ____
spinal cord
The brain locates pain based on _____ _____
past experience
After an amputation, a patient may feel _____ ______ in the missing limb
phantom pain
Pain is often ____ to an area just under the skin that may be some distance from the organ involved
referred
When pain is felt at both the site of the distress and as referred pain, it may seem to _____ from the organ to the superficial area
radiate
Stimulation of the skin over a painful area with electrodes is called
TENS
In _____, needles are inserted to stimulate afferent neurons that inhibit pain signals
acupuncture
_____ help us maintain the position of the body and its parts
proprioceptors
Proprioceptors called ____ ____ detect muscle movement
muscle spindles
Proprioceptors called ____ ____ ___ determine stretch in the tendons that attach muscle to bone
Golgi tendon organs
Proprioceptors called ____ ____ detect movement in ligaments
joint receptors
____ ____ is a conscious awareness of body position
kinesthetic sense