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71 Cards in this Set

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In an average lifetime, the heart pumps about ______ liters of blood.
300 million
The heart is located in the _____ between the _____ and between the ____ and ____ ribs
thorax; lungs; fifth and six
Name the layers of the heart wall starting at the inside and working outward.
1. endocardium
2. myocardium
3. epicardium (or visceral pericardium)
Inner layer of the heart wall; consists of smooth endothelial lining resting on connective tissue
endocardium
The greatest bulk of the heart wall; the cardiac muscle that contracts to pump blood
myocardium
The two-part outer layer of heart wall consisting of the visceral pericardium (inner layer) and the parietal pericardium (outer layer)
epicardium
What is the potential space between the visceral pericardium and the parietal pericardium (which can fill with fluid)?
pericardial cavity
The ____ _____ is the inner layer of the epicardium
visceral pericardium
The ____ ____ is the outer layer of the epicardium
parietal pericardum
The right and left sides of the heart are separated by a wall or ______
septum
The heart has _____ chambers
four
Name the four chambers of the heart
right atrium and right ventricle
left atrium and left ventricle
The ____ receive blood returning to the heart from veins and act as reservoirs between contractions
atria
The _____ pump blood into the great arteries leaving the heart
ventricles
The _____ _____ receives oxygen-poor blood returning from the tissues
right atrium
The ____ ____ pumps blood into the pulmonary circulation
right ventricle
The system of blood vessels that connect the heart and lungs
pulmonary circulation
____ _____carry blood to the lungs where ____ are exchanged
Pulmonary arteries; gases
____ ____ return oxygen-rich blood to the left atrium
Pulmonary veins
The ____ ____ pumps oxygen-rich blood into the aorta
left ventricle
A large artery of the systemic circulation
aorta
____ ____ is the network of blood vessels that delivers blood to all the body systems
systemic circulation
Name the exact sequence of blood flow through the heart
right atrium ->right ventricle -> through pulmonary circulation -> left atrium -> left ventricle -> through systemic circulation
The wall between the atria is the ____ ____
interatrial septum
The wall between the ventricles is the ____ _____
interventricular septum
A small, muscular pouch called the ____ increases the surface area of each atrium
auricle
____ prevent backflow of blood
valves
An ____ ____ guards the passageway between each atrium and ventricle
atrioventricular (AV) valve
AV Valves are held in place by connective tissue cords called ____ ____ (aka "heart strings")
chordae tendineae
The chordeae tendineae attach the AV valves to the ______ _____
papillary muscles
The AV valve between the right atrium and the right ventricle has three cusps and is called the ______ valve
tricuspid
The left AV valve, with two cusps, is called the ______ valve, but is commonly known as the _____ valve
bicuspid; mitral
A narrowing of the the opening of the mitral valve is called ___ ___
mitral stenosis
The most common cause of mitral stenosis is ____ _____ inflammation
rheumatic fever
The three cusps of each ___ valve are shaped like half-moons
semilunar
The semilunar valve between the left ventricle and the aorta is known as the ___ ____ valve
aortic semilunar
The semilunar valve between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery is the ____ _____ valve.
pulmonary semilunar valve
The right and left ____ ____ branch off from the aorta as it leaves the heart
coronary arteries
After passing through capillaries in the heart wall, blood flows through ____ ____
coronary veins
Coronary veins join to form a large vein, the ____ ____ which empties into the right atrium
coronary sinus
CAD
coronary artery disease
___ ____ ____ develops when the coronary arteries or their branches become thickened or blocked, reducing blood flow
Coronary artery disease (CAD)
When affected cardiac muscle becomes ischemic, ____ _____ can result
myocardial infarction
(aka heart attack)
The conduction system consists of ______ cardiac muscle
specialized
Name the three parts of the heart's electrical conduction system
sinoatrial node, the atrioventricular node and the atrioventricular bundle
Each heartbeat is initiated by the _____ _____ which generates electrical impulses
sinoatrial node
(SA node or pacemaker)
A small mass of specialized muscle in the posterior wall of the right atrium
SA node
One group of atrial muscle fibers conducts electrical impulse directly to the ____ _____ where transmission is delayed briefly
atrioventricular (AV) node
From the AV node, electrical impulses spread into muscle fibers that form the _____ _____ which conduct impulses about six times faster than ordinary cardiac muscle fibers
artioventricular bundle
(aka bundle of His)
The AV bundle divides into left/right bundle branches, extending into right/left ventricles, then divide into smaller branches ending in terminal fibers known as ____ _____
Purkinje fibers
Cardiac muscle fibers are joined at their ends by dense bands called _____ _____ which are tight junctions between the muscle cells
intercalated disks
Name the exact pathway an electrical impulse takes through the heart
SA node->cardiac muscle of atria (atria contract)->AV node->AV bundle->right/left branches->Purkinje fibers->ordinary muscle fibers of ventricles (ventricles contract)
The events that occur during one complete heartbeat make up the ____ ____
cardiac cycle
Each complete heartbeat lasts for about ____ seconds and occurs about ____ times per minute
0.8; 72
When a _____ occurs, blood is forced out of the heart; this is known as ______
contraction; systole
When the heart ____, it fills with blood; this is known as _____
relaxes; diastole
The written record produced by placing electrodes on the body surface on opposite sides of the heart is called a ________
electrocardiogram (EEG)
The first part of the heart sound "lub" is produced when the ____ valves close during systole.
AV
The second part of the heart sound "dub" is caused by the closing of the _____ valves during diastole.
semilunar
Abnormal heart sounds are called _____ _____ which may indicate possible valve disorders
heart murmurs
Cardiac output depends on ____ volume and heart ____
stroke; rate
The ____ ____ is the volume of blood pumped by the left ventricle into the aorta in one minute
cardiac output
The volume of blood pumped by one ventricle during one beat is called the ____ ____
stroke volume
Stroke volume depends mainly on _____ _____ (the amount of blood delivered to the heart by the veins)
venous return
According to _____ _____ of the heart, the greater the amount of blood delivered to the heart by the veins, the more blood the heart pumps (within physiological limits).
Starling's law
The heart is regulated by the ____ and _____ systems
nervous; endocrine
Parasympathetic nerves release acetylcholine which ____ the heart
slows
Sympathetic nerves release norepinephrine which ____ the heart and increases the strength of contraction
speeds
Both norepinephrine and acetylcholine act indirectly on _____ _____ in the plasma membrane (cell wall)
ion channels
A fast heart rate >100 beats per minute is called ______
tacycardia
A slow heart rate <60 beats per minute is referred to as ______
bradycardia