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45 Cards in this Set

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3 important specializations of the intercalated disc
1. Fascia adherens
2. Desmosomes
3. Gap (nexus) junctions
attachment site for actin filaments of the terminal sacromeres
Fascia Adherens
what is responsible for physically holding the myocyte ends together and composed of varing intermediate filaments
Desmosomes
Protein hexamers with a central hydrophilic pore present in large numbers in each gap junction
Connexons
the layers of hte cardiac myocytes "insert" into dense connective tissure that comprises
the fibrous skeleton of the heart
where is the fibrous skeleton of the heart
1. around the base of the aorta, pulmonary artery and AV orifices
2. near the aortic valve cusp
3. upper portion of the AV septum
Purkinje fibers are derived from
cardiac myocytes
Purkinje fibers are most easily found in
subendothelial connective tissue
Roles of Ca+2
1. (Major) induce further Ca+2 release from the SR
2. membrane depolarization
3. providing a minor portion of the Ca+2 that binds troponin C
Ca-induced Ca+2 released is triggered at
diads
Calcium Paradox
rapid return of normal blood flow can lead to myocardial death dur to a maddice influx of calcium into cardiac myocytes.
signature characteristic of large elastic arteries
internal elastic lamina
these provide nutrients to cells that lie in the outer tunic
Vaso Vasorum
the hallmark characteristic of muscular arteries
layers of smooth muscle in tunica media
arterioles that are continuous with capillary beds
metarterioles
Weibel-Palade bodies
membrane-bound inclusions of arterial endothelial cells that contain glycoprotein coagulation factor
Von Willebrand factor is important in
platelet aggregation during clot formation
function of pericytes
1. regulation of blood flow through capillaries
2. division and formation of new vessels and connective tissue in response to vessel damage
Where are mitochondria found
adjacent to the sarcolemma, wedged between myofibrils and in the perinucular space
Lipofuschin granules are often located
near the nucleus particularly in older cells
what layer of the heart is responsible for contraction of hte atrial and ventricular wall
Myocardium
Purkinje fiber function
specialized for rapid impulse conduction
Purkinje fibers are connected by______ but do not have ______
Connected by gap junction
dont have intercalated disks
Internal elastic lamina
marks the outer most boundary of hte intima and is a signature characteristic of arteries. it is composed of elastin and is fenestrated to permit diffusion of nutrients to cells deeper in the vessel wall.
where do leukocytes exit the bloodstream
venules
most large veins have a poorly defined tunica media except
pulmonary veins
-developed circular smooth muscle layer in the tuncia media
what layer of the veins are valves developed from?
tunica intima
tuncia adventitia of medium veins
the thickest tunic and has elastic fibers, collagen bundles and some smooth muscle cells arranged longitudinally
are there smooth muscle in veins?
Yes!
In the adventitia of some large veins such as those laying below the heart
Do any veins have cardiac muscle?
Yes! vena cavae and pulmonary veins may posses some cardiac muscle in the adventitia near the junction of the heart
tunica adentitia of large veins
thick and well developed in most large veins.
-many elastic fibers and longitudinally-oriented collagen
which capillaries has a diaphragm and which do not?
Has-Fenestrated
Does Not- Sinusoidal
Major Functions of capillaries
1. Selective permeability
2. Synthetic/ metabolic activies
3. Antithrombogenic function
which capillaries has an enlarged diameter to slow circulation?
Sinusoidal
which capillaries endothelial wall is discontinuous and have pores without diaphragms?
Sinusoidal
where are sinusoidal capillaries found?
liver
spleen
lymph organs
bone marrow and endocrine glands
which capillaries have a diaphragm?
Fenestrated
where are fenestrated capollaries?
in tissue where rapid exchange occurs between the blood and tissue
-intestine
-endocrine glands
-kidney
which capillaries have no fenestration and have tight junction between endothelial cells?
continuous capillaries
Where are pinocytotic vesicles absent in the capillary endothelium of continuous capillaries?
Nervous system
- blood brain barrier
what is different about tunica media of lymphatic ducts compaired to that of veins?
Has circular and longitudinal smooth muscle
tunica adventitia of lymph duct?
has longitiudinal smooth muscle and collagen fibers
lymph vessels will eventually drain into the 2 final collecting vessels, the lymphatic ducts:
1. Right lymphatic duct
2. Thoracic duct
The epicardium is covered by
mesothelium
-simple squamous epithelium
homologous to (continuous with) tunica intima
endocardium