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25 Cards in this Set

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The basic body symmetry of Porifera is well adapted to sedentary filter-feeding way of life. This type of symmetry is what?
Name two sponge cell types that perform multiple biological functions AND identify two of those functions for each type.
1. Choanocytes: flagella beat- pump water through sponge; collars capture nutrients.
2. Amebocytes: move nutrients throughout sponge; differentiate into more specialized cells.
Ascon, Leucon, and sycon refer to the three sponge classes or body types?
Which of the above require a daily filtration rate of approx. 3,000x its internal volume to obtain food and sustain life support?
Leuconoid (Flagella)
How does an asconoid sponge pump water?
H20 in (choano- H20 out
Why is having a hugh s:v ratio essential?
s/v ratios govern all changes. All exchange structures(gas, solutes, heat) and circulatory systems evolve in response to an increase in body size.
Name the grades of body organization.
Cellular (Sponges, Protozoa)
Tissue (Cnidarian)
Organ (everything else)
Describe a nematocyst and state two functions such structures perform.
Nematocysts are individual cells on the outer surface of an organism. Known as stinging cells and sometimes used to inject toxins.
Functions: defense, capture of prey, adhesion
What are the 3 main classes of Cnidaria are:
Anthozoa, Hydrozoa and Scyphozoa
Sea anemones produce no ____ body form but a ____ larve
a. medusa b.planular
Name the dominant body form of the 3 Classes of Cnidarians
C. Hydrozoa: POLYPOID and medusa
C. Scyphozoa: MEDUSA and polypoid
What are the 3 reasons a hydra is different:
1. it is only polyp stage
2. polyp capable of sex/asex reproduction
3. entirely fresh water
Explain why anthozoan corals are the most important cnidarians to marine species biodiversity.
The contrubute to the total mass of calcium carbonate and their deposits help to hold the coral reef together. They recycle phosphorous and nitrogenous waste compounds and enhance the ability of coral to deposit calcium carbonate.
Name the following for a HYDRA and a Planaria:
a. Grade of construction
b. germ layers
c. symmetry
d. nervous system
e. locomotion
a. Tissue
b. diploblastic (epidermis, gastrodermis)
c. Radial
d. Nerve net
e. sessile, attached
a. Organ
b. Triploblastic (ecto, meso, endo)
c. Bilateral symmetry
d. none
e. free moving
State a general definition of a parasite.
An organism that is either monogenetic or digenetic in which it feeds off of one or two hosts (+ -)
Two parasitic flatworms classes are:
Trematoda, Cestoda (Turbellaria- free living)
What structure serves as water balance in freshwater flatworms?
Flame bulb cells
How do flame bulb cells work in water balance?
Flame cell flagella pump excess H20 and nitrogenous waste out through tube/pore network.
Name the 3 of the 4 specializations to parasitic living.
1. high reproductive rate
2. decreased use/need for digestive system
3. tough cuticle covering for survival in hosts.
What is Radial Symmetry? Give an example of a phylum, class or genus that exhibits this feature.
Along a longitudinal axis with oral and aboral ends; no definite head.
P. Cnidaria
What type of symmetry do the following have:
Porifera, Cnidaria, platyhelminthes
none (or radial), radial, bilateral
Hydrostatic Skeleton
A structure consisting of a fluid-filled cavity, the coelom, surrounded by muscles. The pressure of the fluid and action of the surrounding muscles are used to change an organism's shape and produce movement, such as burrowing or swimming.
An evolutionary trend in the animal kingdom toward centralization of neural and sensory organs in the head or anterior region of the body.
Cellular Grade
Aggregation of cells with one or more functions that coordinate for life support.
Having 3 germ layers. Ectoderm: epidermis; Mesoderm: mesenchyme; Endoderm: intestinal tract
**Pseudocoelmates (P. Rotifera, P. Nematoda)