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49 Cards in this Set

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1.  Which of the following is an important feature of carbon and that makes life possible?  
A.  Carbon can form a maximum of 8 covalent bonds.
B.  Carbon can form a maximum of 6 covalent bonds.
C.  Carbon can form a maximum of 4 covalent bonds.
D.  Carbon can form a maximum of 2 covalent bonds.
E.  None of the choices are possible for carbon.
C. Carbon can form a maximum of 4 covalent bonds.
2.  Which of the following are important features of carbon and the diversity of organic molecules?  
A.  Carbon can form up to 4 covalent bonds with other elements.
B.  Carbon bonds may occur in multiple different configurations such as linear, ringlike, and highly branched.
C.  Carbon can form both polar and nonpolar covalent bonds with various elements.
D.  Carbon bonds are stable at the range of temperatures associated with life.
E.  All the choices are correct.
E.  All the choices are correct.
4.  Which element(s) is common to all organic molecules?  
A.  oxygen
B.  nitrogen
C.  hydrogen
D.  carbon
E.  both nitrogen and carbon
D. Carbon.
5.  Two molecules with identical molecular formulas but that have different structures are called  
A.  polymers.
B.  isomers.
C.  carboyhydrates.
D.  hydrocarbons.
E.  ring structures.
B. Isomers.
6.  Which of the following has identical molecular formulas but different structures and characteristics?  
A.  isomers
B.  sterioisomers
C.  enantiomers
D.  isomers, but not sterioisomers
E.  isomers, sterioisomers, and enantiomers
E. Isomers, Sterioisomers, and enantiomers.
7.  Organic molecules with identical molecular formulas and that are structurally mirror images of each other are most specifically referred to as  
A.  polymers.
B.  mimics.
C.  enantiomers.
D.  hydrocarbon rings.
E.  saturated fatty acids.
C. Enantiomers.
8.  Which of the molecules is polar and acts like a base?  
A.  R-NH2
B.  R-CO-R
C.  R-OH
D.  R-PO4
E.  R-SH
A.  R-NH2
9.  Which functional group characterizes alcohols?  
A.  NH2
B.  COOH
C.  PO4
D.  SH
E.  OH
E. OH
10.  Which functional group forms covalent bonds and contributes to tertiary structure of proteins?  
A.  NH2
B.  COOH
C.  PO4
D.  SH
E.  OH
D. SH
11.  Fuels such as gasoline are nonpolar and high in energy because they are largely composed of  
A.  sulfates.
B.  hydrocarbons.
C.  carboxylic acids.
D.  amines.
E.  carbonyls.
B. Hydrocarbons.
12.  Which of the following macromolecules are polymers?  
A.  lipids
B.  carboyhydrates
C.  nucleic acids
D.  proteins
E.  All of the choices are correct.
E. All of the choices are correct.
13.  All are true about a dehydration reaction EXCEPT which of the following?  
A.  Results in removal of a water molecule.
B.  Essential for the breakdown of complex molecules to simple ones.
C.  Essential to the formation of polymers.
D.  Essential for the formation of glycogen from glucose monomers.
E.  Essential for the formation of triglycerides (fat) from glycerol and fatty acids.
B.  Essential for the breakdown of complex molecules to simple ones.
14.  Glycogen is to animal cells as ________ is to plant cells.  
A.  lipid
B.  cellulose
C.  starch
D.  protein
E.  sugar
C. Starch.
15.  A monomer is to a polymer, as glucose is to  
A.  lipids.
B.  carboyhydrates.
C.  nucleic acids.
D.  proteins.
E.  None of the choices are correct.
B. Carbohydrates.
16.  A disaccharide, such as maltose, consists of two molecules of glucose linked by what type of bond?  
A.  phosphodiester
B.  glycosidic
C.  steroid
D.  peptide
E.  None of the choices are correct.
B. Glycosidic.
17.  Amongst all others, which is the largest macromolecule?  
A.  monosaccharide
B.  disaccharide
C.  polysaccharide
D.  glucose
E.  sucrose
C. Polysaccharide.
18.  Which of these is NOT a lipid?  
A.  phospholipid
B.  cholesterol
C.  steroids
D.  glycogen
E.  wax and oils
D. Glycogen.
19.  Which of the following is NOT a property of fat or of fatty acids?  
A.  They are soluble in water.
B.  The source of variation in fat molecules is the fatty acid composition.
C.  Fatty acids can vary in number and location of C-C double bonds.
D.  Fatty acids may vary in length.
E.  Fats can be liquid or solid at room temperature, depending on fatty acid composition.
A. They are soluble in water.
20.  Which is TRUE about amphipathic molecules when placed in an aqueous solution?  
A.  The interior portion is composed of hydrophilic hydrocarbon chains.
B.  The outside portion is composed of hydrophilic head groups.
C.  The interior portion is composed of hydrophobic hydrocarbon chains.
D.  The interior portion of the micelle is composed of hydrophilic hydrocarbon chains and the outside portion of hydrophilic head groups.
E.  The interior portion is composed of hydrophobic hydrocarbon chains and the outside portion of hydrophilic head groups.
E.  The interior portion is composed of hydrophobic hydrocarbon chains and the outside portion of hydrophilic head groups.
21.  This class of macromolecules serves as important energy stores and is a major component of plasma membranes.  
A.  lipids
B.  carbohydrates
C.  nucleic acids
D.  proteins
E.  ions
A. Lipids.
22.  Amphipathic molecules  
A.  possess only hydrophilic properties.
B.  possess only hydrophobic properties.
C.  possess both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
D.  possess neither hydrophilic nor hydrophobic properties.
E.  tend not to interact with other molecules.
C.  possess both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
23.  Which of the molecules below is NOT a subunit for building macromolecules?  
A.  glucose
B.  amino acids
C.  steroid
D.  fatty acid
E.  nucleotides
C. Steroid.
24.  Which of these is rich in unsaturated fats?  
A.  a fat that is solid at room temperature
B.  butter
C.  beef fat
D.  bacon grease
E.  olive oil
E. Olive Oil.
25.  What is the main difference between a fat (triglyceride) and a phospholipid?  
A.  A fat has 4 fatty acids attached to glycerol, whereas a phospholipid has 3.
B.  A fat has 3 fatty acids attached to glycerol, whereas a phospholipid has 4.
C.  A phospholipid has 2 fatty acids attached to glycerol, whereas a fat has 3.
D.  A phospholipid has 3 fatty acids attached to glycerol, whereas a fat has 2.
E.  None of the above are true.
C.  A phospholipid has 2 fatty acids attached to glycerol, whereas a fat has 3.
26.  Which of the following macromolecules is composed of amino acids?  
A.  lipids
B.  carboyhydrates
C.  nucleic acids
D.  proteins
E.  All of the choices are correct.
D. Proteins.
27.  With regard to protein structure, which level determines all others?  
A.  primary
B.  secondary
C.  tertiary
D.  quaternary
E.  hepternary
A. Primary.
28.  What level of protein structure, characterized by coils and folds, results from hydrogen bonding between carboxyl and amino groups of the polypeptide chain?  
A.  primary
B.  secondary
C.  tertiary
D.  quaternary
E.  both secondary and quaternary
B. Secondary.
29.  Acetic acid gives vinegar its sour taste. Which functional group has acidic properties and would release hydrogen ions in an aqueous (water) solution?  
A.  -OH
B.  -NH2
C.  -SH
D.  -COOH
E.  -CO
D. -COOH
30.  Which portion of an amino acid is unique among the different amino acids?  
A.  carboxyl
B.  amino
C.  hydrocarbon
D.  the side chain or R-group
E.  peptide bonding
D.  the side chain or R-group
31.  Which macromolecule has the highest diversity of functions?  
A.  carbohydrates
B.  proteins
C.  nucleic acids
D.  lipids
E.  glycolipids
B.  proteins
32.  The tertiary structure of a protein is dependent on  
A.  the side chain composition of each amino acid within the protein.
B.  hydrogen bonding between the carboxyl and amino groups within the polypeptide chain.
C.  the interactions of multiple polypeptide chains that make up a functional protein.
D.  the way in which the peptide bond forms.
E.  the degree through which the dehydration reaction occurs.
A.  the side chain composition of each amino acid within the protein.
33.  Sickle cell anemia is a condition in which red blood cells of patients exhibit a characteristic "sickle" shape. This arises from a mutation or change in one of the amino acids found in hemoglobin. Knowing this, what level of protein structure is most directly affected by this single amino acid mutation?  
A.  primary
B.  secondary
C.  tertiary
D.  quaternary
E.  None of the choices are correct.
A.  primary
34.  Which is true of the nucleotide base composition within the DNA double helix?  
A.  G=A
B.  T=C
C.  T+A=C+G
D.  T+G=A+C
E.  A=U
C. t+a=c+g
35.  If a specimen contains 30% adenine in its DNA then how much cytosine will there be?  
A.  40%
B.  30%
C.  20%
D.  10%
E.  Cannot be determined.
C.  20%
36.  Which of the following statements BEST summarizes structural differences between DNA and RNA?  
A.  RNA is a protein, while DNA is a nucleic acid.
B.  RNA is a polymer, but DNA is not.
C.  DNA contains a different sugar than RNA.
D.  RNA is a double helix, but DNA is not.
E.  All the bases in DNA differ from those in RNA.
C.  DNA contains a different sugar than RNA.
37.  An amino acid is to a protein as a ________ is to a nucleic acid.  
A.  glucose
B.  glycerol
C.  nucleotide
D.  fatty acid
E.  cellulose
C. Nucleotide
38.  Which is true of the base pairing seen between two DNA strands?  
A.  Adenine bonds with guanine.
B.  Guanine bonds with thymine.
C.  Thymine bonds with cytosine.
D.  Cytosine bonds with guanine
E.  Guanine bonds with thymine.
D.  Cytosine bonds with guanine
39.  Friedrich Wöhler refuted the scientific concept of vitalism during the early 1800s by proving that organic molecules could be synthesized outside a living organism.  
TRUE
40.  Since carbon and hydrogen share similar electronegativities they will form nonpolar molecules when combined.  
TRUE
41.  Macromolecules such as lipids and carbohydrates are produced from simple subunits through condensation reactions.  
TRUE
42.  The sole function of carbohydrates is to serve as energy stores.
false
43.  If sucrose is composed of both glucose and fructose then sucrose must be a monosaccharide.  
false
44.  Lipids and carbohydrates have similar functions insofar as they can represent a form of energy store in animals.  
TRUE
45.  Saturated fats are composed of fatty acids with several double bonded carbons.
FALSE
46.  When a food label reads polyunsaturated fats, this refers to fatty acids composed of multiple double bonded carbons.  
TRUE
47.  Proteins can have separate domains with distinct structures and function.  
TRUE
48.  The primary structure of a protein ultimately determines its three-dimensional structure.  
TRUE
49.  All amino acids within a protein are either polar charged or polar uncharged.  
FALSE
50.  The four nucleotide bases found in DNA are identical to those in RNA.  
FALSE