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55 Cards in this Set

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substance consisting of 2 or more elements combined in a fixed ratio
compound
neutural particals in the nucleus of an atom
neutrons
look at the name "neu"
positive partical in nucleus of atom
proton
pro=pos
required by an organism only in minute quantities
trace elements
think small "trace"
smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element
atom
small like an ant
substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical reactions
an element
its elementary
negatively charged particals which orbit the nucleus
electrons
its moving- its electric
subatomic measuring unit
dalton
named for man credited with developing the atomic theory
the number of protons, which is unique to each element
atomic number
number sum of protons plus + neutrons
mass number
atom with differing number of neutron
isotope
isotope which is unstable in which nucleus decays spontaneously, giving off particals of energy
radioactive isotope
ability to do work
energy
energy that matter stores because of its position or location
potential energy
farthest electron shell
valence shell
three dimentional space where the electron is located
orbit
bonds in which atoms complete their valence shell
chemical bonds
chemical bond in which a pair of valence electrons are shared by two atoms
covalent bonds
2 or more atoms held together by a covalent bond
molecule
bond in which atoms share 2 pairs of valence electrons
double covalent bonds
the attraction of an atom for the electrons of a covalent bond
electronegativity
covalent bond in which electrons are shared equally
nonpolar covalent bond
covalent bond in which electrons are shared unequally
polar covalent bond
a charged atom, negatively or positively
ion
positively charged ion
cation
rubbing two cats together
negatively charged ion
anion
bonds between oppositely charged ions
ionic bond
compounds formed by ionic bonds
salt
bond formed when a hydrogen atom, covalently bonded to 1 electronegative atom, is also attracted to another electronegative atom
hydrogen bond
making and breaking of chemical bonds, leading to changes in the composition of matter
chemical reaction
starting materials in chemical reactions
reactants
creations of chemical reactions
products
type of chemical reaction in which 2 or more reactants form 1 product
combination
type of chemical reaction in which 1 reactant forms 2 or more products
decomposition
chemical reaction in which nonmetals or their compounds react with oxygen to produce their oxide and release heat energy
combustion
chemical reaction in which 1 element replaces another in a compound
replacement
hydrogen bonds holding water together
cohesion
clinging of one substance to another
adhesion
measure of the intensity of heat due to the average kinetic energy of molecules
temperature
amount of energy that must be absorbed for 1 g of substance to raise temp by 1 degree celcius
specific heat
quantity of heat that must be absorbed in order for 1 g of a substance to turn from liquid to vapor
heat of vaporization
a liquid that is a completely homogeneous mixture of 2 or more substances
solution
disolving agent
solvent
substance that is disolved
solute
solution in which water is the solvent
aqueous solution
the sphere of water molecules around each dissolved ions
hydration cell
substance with an afinity for water
hydrophilic
substances that repel water
hydrophobic
molecular weight expressed in grams
moles
sum weight of all atoms in a molecule
molecular weight
number of mols of solute per liter of solution
molarity
substances that increase hydrogen ion concentration of a substance
acid
substance that reduces the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution
base
levels of biological organization
kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
5 kingdoms
animalia, fungi, plantae, protista, monera