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50 Cards in this Set

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Red nucleus
What area is tagged?
Name the tract(s) within the green tags. For larger boxes, there are more than one tract.
See the drawing for the labeled tracts.
Andy teaches Vern poorly regularly
Draw a basic/generalized circuit within the cerebellum.
See the drawing.
Draw out the circuit for the vestibulocerebellum.
See the image.
Draw out the cerebrocerebellum circuit.
See the drawing.
Draw out the Spinocerebellum circuit which has an influence on axial mm and limb extensions. (postural/antigravity mm)
See the drawing.
Draw out the Spinocerebellum circuit - Influence on flexors/distal limb mm
See the drawing.
What are the four spinocerebellar tracts?
Rostral spinocerebellar
Cuneo-cerebellar
Ventral & Dorsal Spinocerebellar
What is the source of information carried by each of the four spinocerebellar tracts?
Proprioceptive receptors - same as used for DCML.
Where does the ventral and dorsal spinocerebellar tract decussate?
The ventral spinocerebellar tract decussates at the cord level and again in the pons area. The dorsal spinocerebellar tract does not decussate.
For the two spinocerebellum tracts (ventral and dorsal), what does each influence in the body?
1) Ventral - Flexors/distal limb mm
2) Dorsal - Axial mm and limb extensions (postural/antigravity mm)
What peduncle(s) is used for the dorsal spinocerebellum tract (DSCT)?

What peduncle(s) is used for the ventral spinocerebellum tract (VSCT)?
Dorsal - Inferior cerebellar peduncle

Ventral - Superior cerebellar peduncle.
What are the major inputs of the dorsal spinocerebellar tract?
Mechanoreceptors in muscles, joints, skin.
What are the major inputs of the ventral spinocerebellar tract?
Mechanoreceptors, movement-related interneurons.
What are the major inputs of the cuneocerebellar tract?
Mechanoreceptors in muscles, joints, skin.
What is the origin of the dorsal spinocerebellar tract?
Clarke's nucleus (T1-L2/3).
What is the origin of the ventral spinocerebellar tract?
Spinal boarder cells (T12-L5)
What are the two most common characteristics observed for cerebellar disease?

Give a definition for each.
Hypotonia: diminished muscle tone.

Ataxia: inability to coordinate movements and maintain posture. Can intefere with walking, talking eating, etc.
What is dysmetria?
The inability to place an extremity at a precise point in space.
What is intention tremor?
A tremor that arises when VOLUNTARY movements are ATTEMPTED.
What is dysdiadochokineses?
Difficulty in making rapidly alternative or successive movements, e.g. clamp hand to other palm to palm then back to palm, etc.
What is rebound phenomenon?
A loss of the normal checks of agonist and antagonist muscles.
What is truncal sway?
Sway from side to side when standing.
What is Nystagmus?
Involuntary, rapid movement of the eyes in either the horizontal direction or occasionally in the vertical direction.
What is delayed initiation of movement?
As it says. There is delay before movement begins.
What are pendular reflexes?
When doing a reflex test, may see a swinging of a limb, e.g. leg, rather than one quick jerk.
What is past pointing?
Individual reaches target and continues movement after reaching it, e.g. finger to nose pointing but keeps moving finger around nose after reaching it.
What is dysarthia?
Scanning or explosive speech pattern. Person is unable to coordinate air movements with muscles of speech.
Define the characteristics of vestibulocerebellar syndrome. What is a critical test of absence?
Ataxia, wide-based stance, nystagmus. The patient does not show ataxia symptoms when lying down.
What is the primary function of the vestibulocerebellum?
Coordinates proximal mm., maintains body posture/balance, coordinates eye movements
What is the primary function of the spinocerebellum?
Bring proprioceptive information to cerebellum.
What is the primary function of the cerebrocerebellum?
Timing, planning of complicated movements.
Define the characteristics of Cerebrocerebellar Syndrome.
Ataxia
•Delay in initiation & termination
of movements
•Decomposition of complicated movements •Dysdiadochokinesia
Define the characteristics of Spinocerebellar (Anterior Lobe) Syndrome
1) What degenerates?
2) What limb is involved?
3) Signs

What is a cause?
•Degeneration of anterior lobe
• pelvic limb involvement
•Broad-based stance
•Shuffling, staggering gait
•Ataxia not relieved by recumbency
(not a problem w/gravity)

•Chronic Alcoholism
What are the functional divisions of the Cerebellum
Spinocerebellum?
•“Essential for performance of smooth, accurate, & coordinated motor tasks.” •Modulation of Ongoing Motor Activity:
Rate, Range, and Force of Voluntary Movements
What is an analogy for the function of the Cerebellum Spinocerebellum?
It acts like a comparator. Plan versus actual movement.
What are the primary afferents or efferents of the superior, middle and inferior peduncles?
Superior - cerebellar output and a little input.

Middle - input - Pontocerebellar Fibers

Inferior - input - Spinocerebellar Tracts, vestibular and olives. Slight output to vestibular.
Fill in the names in the green boxes.
See picture.
Molecular layer.
Purkinje cell layer.
Granule cell layer.

Synaptic internrons between cerebellar interneurons and Purkinje cells.

The molecular layer is next to the pial layer of the cerebellum cortex.
Name the three areas shown in the picture from top to bottom.

What is contained in the top layer?

Where is the top layer located in relationship to the cerebellum?
Sketch the DSCT tract including an afferent that enters at L2/3 and one that enters at L4.

Sketch the VSCT tract.

What is the name of the nucleus circled in the DSCT spinal cord?
See the picture for the tracts.

Clarke's nucleus.
What are the first degree functions of the cerebellum?
1. Control of rate, range, & force of ongoing motor movements ("coordintation")
2. Maintenance of stable posture
3. Planning & timing of complex movements.
In a simple explanation, how does the cerebellum accomplish its first degree functions?
By adjusting the output of UMN pathways.
What two things does the cerebellum not do?
Issue motor commands or act in awareness of stimuli.
What two things are not charactistics of cerebellar disease?
1. Is not characterized by paresis or paralysis.
2. Is not characterized by a loss of sensory function.
Arbor Vitae
What is the name of the structure shown in light blue?
What are the three functional divisions of the cerebellum?
Vestibulocerebellum

Cerebrocerebellum

Spinocerebellum
What are the functions of the spinocerebellum?

CHECKOUT QUESTION VS ANSWER
1) "Essential for performance of smooth, accurate, & coordinated motor tasks."

2) Modulation of Ongoing Motor Activity: Rate, Range, and Force of Voluntary Movements
What are the four spinocerebellar tracts from the cord?
1) Rostral (cranial) spinocerebellar & cuneocerebellar tracts from upper limb.

2) Ventral & Dorsal Spinocerebellar tracts from lower limb
What are the vestibulocerebellar syndromes?

Why do these signs appear, i.e. what control has been lost?

When are the signs not observed?
Ataxia

Wide-based stance

Nystagmus ("jerk", especially w/lateral gaze)

Signs result from inability to use vestibular information to coordinate movements.

No deficits are seen when patient is recumbent.
What are the cerebrocerebellar syndromes?
Ataxia

Delay in initiation & termination of movements.

Decomposition of complicated movements

Dysdiadochokinesia