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26 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the name of the first first membrane an air pressure wave will see in the ear?
Tympanic membrane
What are the names of the bones? Start with the one touching the tympanic membrane.
Malleus bone -> incus -> staples
What does the footplate of the stapes cover?
A hole in the temporal bone called the oval window.
What structure is found on the other side of the oval window?
Bony laybrinth
What is fluid is contained within the vetibule of the bony labyrinth?
Regarding hearing, to what structure does the vetibule lead?

What hearing structure is found in this area?

organ of Corti
What liquid surrounds the hair cells?
What are the three cavities within the organ of Corti?

In which of these are the hair cells located?
Scala vestibuli, Chochlear duct,
Scala tmpani

Chochlear duct
The hair cells are attached to this structure: ______.

What structure touches the top of the outer hair cells and may touch the top of the inner hair cells?
Baslar membrane

Tectorial membrane
Name the structures found in the organ of Corti.
Tectorial membrane
Outer and inner hair cells
Basliar membrane
Fibers of choclear nerve
What happens after the pressure wave results in the movement of the oval window?
The stapes goes in-out-in, the secondary tympanic membrane (round window) goes out-in-out, and the basilar membrane goes down-up-down. The result is vibration of hair cells and the generation of an electrical signal.
What is the name of the structures attached to a hair cell which result in electrical activity when moved?
What happens as the sterecillum of hair cells are moved?
Each stereocillum is mechanically linked to its neighbor by a tip link. When the stereocillum is bent, the tip link will open a gated K+ channel on a neighboring stereocillum. The inflow of K+ leads to depolarization of the hair cell which results in an influx of Ca++. This in turn releases glutamate on the basilar side of the cell and this leadds to stimulation of the postynaptic cochlear nerve.
What special effect is exhibited by outer hair cells?
They are contractle. Vibration of their basilar membrane results in a change of their membrane potential. This in turn increases the stimulation of inner cells, i.e. amplifies their signal.
How is a tonotopic distribution obtained in the cochlear duct?
The basilar membrane increases in thickness versus distance along the chochlear duct. Higher frequencies will tend to resonate at the thinner regions of the membranes.
What is the pathway followed by the vestibulocochlear nerve as it leaves the Cochlea?
Synapse in Cochlear nuclei in the pons -> synapse in the inferior colliculus of midbrain -> synapse in the medial geniculate nucleus of the thalamus -> synape in primary auditory cortex.
What is the pathway which leads to cochlear tuning?
vestibulocochlear nerve -> synapse coclearn nuclei -> synapse superior olivary nucleus of pons -> synapse in cochlea.
What is the pathway for the tympanic reflex?
Vestibulocochlear nerve -> syanpse superior olivary nucleus of pons -> CN V3 and VII -> synapse tensor tympani and stapedus muscles.
What is the pathway for the auditory reflex (head turning)?
Vestibulocochlear nerve -> synapse inferior colliculus of midbrain -> synapse neck muscles.
What is conduction deafness?
There is some type of blockage or mechanical problem in delivering the sound to the labyrinth.
What type of deafness has damage to the hair cells, cochlear nerve firbers or cochlear nuclei?
Sensorineural deafness
What two mechanisms does the brain use to perform sound localization?
1) Shadowing (head attenuates signal from one side)

2) Distance (time of arrival differences)
What structure in the brainstem compares signals fromt eh right and left ears to identify the direction from which a sound is coming?
Superior olive
What is the major ascending auditory pathway of the brainstem? Where does it mostly terminate?
lateral lemniscus

inferior colliculus
What structure carries fibers fromt eh inferior colliculus to the medial geniculate nucleus?
brachium of inferior colliculus
What three things are done by the superior olive?
1) Involved in cochlear tuning

2) Controls tensor tympani and stapedius mm

3) Compares signals from teh right and left ears to identify the direction from which sound is coming.