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36 Cards in this Set

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Classify, draw and label Riccia
D-Eukarya
K-Plantae
P-Hepatophyta (Liverworts)
C-Marchantiidae
O-Marchantiales
G-Riccia

Did you get:
-gametophyte
-thallus
-dichotomously branched lobes
-thallus
-ar chamber
-sporophyte
-archegonium (neck and venter)
-spore tetrad
-sporangial wall (mostly broken down)
Classify, draw and label Ricciocarpus.
D-Eukarya
K-Plantae
P-Hepatophyta (Liverworts)
C-Marchantiidae
O-Marchantiales
G-Ricciocarpus

Did you get:
-dorsal surface of the gametophyte
-thallus
-pore
-air chamber
-sporophyte
Classify, draw and label Marchantia.
D-Eukarya
K-Plantae
P-Hepatophyta (Liverworts)
C-Marchantiidae
O-Marchantiales
G-Marchantia

Did you get:
-thallus
-dichotomously branched lobes
-gemma cup
-gemma
-pore
-air chamber
-scales
-photosynthetic cells
-smooth rhizoid
-rhizoid with peg like growths
-antheridiophore
-stalk
-antheridium
-sperm
-archegonium
-archegonial stalk
-venter
-neck
-egg (or zygote)
-sporophyte
-remnant of venter
-sheath
-capsule
-foot
-seta (stalk)
-spore
-elater
Classify, draw and label Pellia
D-Eukarya
K-Plantae
P-Hepatophyta (Liverworts)
C-Jungermaniidae
O-Metzgeriales
G-Pellia

Did you get:
-thallus
-sporophyte
-capsule wall
-spore
-seta
-foot
-venter
-archegonial neck
Classify, draw and label Porella
D-Eukarya
K-Plantae
P-Hepatophyta (Liverworts)
C-Jungermaniidae
O-Jungermanniales
G-Porella

Did you get:
-gametophyte with an antheridum bearing branch and an archaegonium bearing branch
-gametophyte
-large leaf
-small leaf
-amphigastria
-archaegonium
-sporophyte
-capsule wall
-seta
-foot
-calyptra (venter)
-spore
-elater
Classify, draw and label Sphagnum.
D-Eukarya
K-Plantae
P-Bryophyta (Mosses)
C-Sphagnidae
O-Sphagnales (Peat mosses)
G-Sphagnum

Did you get:
-spore
-filamentous protonema
-thallose protonema
-rhizoid
-gametophyte
-stem
-leaf
-branch cluster
-capitulum
-sporophyte
-capsule
-pseudopodium
-foot
-operculum
-annulus
-thin cell
-chloroplast
-hyaline cell
-fibril thickening
-pore
-capsule
-annulus
-spore cavity
-spore
-columella
-calyptra
Classify, draw and label Mnium.
D-Eukarya
K-Plantae
P-Bryophyta (Mosses)
C-Brydiae (True mosses)
O-Bryales
G-Mnium

Did you get:
-protonema (young gametophyte)
-filament
-bulb
-stem
-leaf
-midrib
-capitulum
-gametophyte
-perichaetal leaf
-paraphsis
-antheridium
-spermatogenous tissue
-antheridial wall
-antheridial stalk
-archaegonium
-archegonial stalk
-neck
-neck canal
-venter
-egg
-sporophyte
-operculum
-epiphragm with peristomial teeth
-spores or sporogenous tissue
-columella
-seta
Classify, draw and label Polytrichum.
D-Eukarya
K-Plantae
P-Bryophyta (Mosses)
C-Brydiae (True mosses)
O-Polytrichales
G-Polytrichum

Did you get:
-gametophyte
-sporophyte
-seta
-capsule
-calyptra
-operculum
-peristome teeth
-columella
-spore
-epiphragm
What are some defining characteristics to the Bryophytes?
-bryophytes may be distinguished from the green alae by possessoin of a sterile multicellular wall deimiting the gametangia and sporangia and from various groups of land plants by absence of vascular tissue
-the multicellular gametangial wall protects the gametes, and later the developing EMBRYO from desiccation in the terrestrial environment
-suggested to be the intermediary position between the algae and vascular plants because of the unspecialized gametophyte and sporophyte generations of the life cycle, which are ANISOMORPHIC but more equal in size than in any other group of terrestrial plants
-now believed that the bryophytes and vascular plants have each evolved DIVERGENTLY from a common ancestor
-most bryophytes live on the land, they are still dependent on water for fertilization, as are the gametophytes of primitive vascular plants, this effectively limits the bryophytes in size since humidity is highest in a thin layer close to the ground
-in the absence of vascular tissue, most water has to be transported up the stmes externally, although internal transportation has been demonstrated in some mosses
-this external transport takes place in thecapillary spaces between the leaves and stems of the plantand the height to which capillary action can take place... this may be seen as another limitation to the size of the bryophytes
What 3 phyla do Bryophytes fall into?
1)Hepatophyta (liverworts)
2)Anthocerophyta (hornworts)
3)Bryophyta (mosses)

-these phyla are distinguished on the basis of gametophyte morphology, the extent of the free living juvenile phase of the gametophyte (the PROTONEMA), the structure of the sporophyte and the method of capsule dehiscence and spore dispersal
Describe the:
1) vegetative form
2) protonema
3) thallus
4) conducting cells
5) antheridia
of the Gametophyte of Hepatophyta
1) prostrate, thallose or leafy
2) present in some
3) leafy types without midribs, thallose types with furrow
4)absent
5)epidermal origin
Describe the:
1) vegetative form
2) protonema
3) thallus
4) conducting cells
5) antheridia
of the Gametophyte of Anthocerophyta.
1)prostate, thallose
2)none
3)without furrows
4)absent
5)hypodermal
Describe the:
1) vegetative form
2) protonema
3) thallus
4) conducting cells
5) antheridia
of the Gametophyte of Bryophyta
1)upright, leafy
2)present
3)leaves usually with midrib
4)present in some
5)epidermal origin
Describe the:
1) vegetative form
2) meristem
3) capsule
4) spore discharge
of the Sporophyte of Hepatophyta
1)determinate growth
2)apical
3)columella absent
4)by elaters
Describe the:
1) vegetative form
2) meristem
3) capsule
4) spore discharge
of the Sporophyte of Anthocerophyta
1)indeterminate growth
2)intercalary
3)central columella
4)pseudoelaters
Describe the:
1) vegetative form
2) meristem
3) capsule
4) spore discharge
of the Sporophyte of Bryophyta
1)determinate growth
2)apical
3)columella present
4)teeth or explosive
Describe the:
1) stomata
2) chloroplasts
of the Gametophyte and Sporophyte of Hepatophyta
1)absent
2)many per cell
Describe the:
1) stomata
2) chloroplasts
of the Gametophyte and Sporophyte of Anthocerophyta
1)present
2)single
Describe the:
1) stomata
2) chloroplasts
of the Gametophyte and Sporophyte of Bryophyta
1)present
2)many
What are some defining characteristics to the Phylum Hepatophyta?
-AKA Liverworts
-are limited to habitats of high stmospheric humidity as are the majority of bryophytes
-however, they are less resistant to desication than the mosses and as a consequence many are characterized by a PROSTRATE (flat) growth form and are most common on moist rocks and soil along woodland streams and in other wet habitats
-2 Classes: Marchantiidae and Jungermanniidae
Describe the general life cycle of Bryophyta.
-spores are released from a capsule, which opens when a small lid (OPERCULUM) is lost
-the haploid spore germinates, forming a branched, filamentous PROTONEMA, from which a leafy gametophyte develops
-sperm ae released from the mature antheridium and, on reachig the vicinity of an archegonium, are chemically attracted into the neck canal
-within the archegonium, one of the sperm fuses with the egg cell, producing the zygote
-the zygote divides mitotically, forming the SPOROPHYTE (consisting of a capsule [sporangium], which is usually raised on a seta and a foot by means of which the sporophyte derives food from the gameophyte)
-at the same time, the VENTER of the archegonium enlarges, forming the CALYPTRA
-meiosis occurs within the capsule, resulting in the formation of haploid spores
What are some defining characteristics to the Genus Riccia?
-dorsal surface of the thallus consists of radiating, dichotomously branched lobes which indicate growth by mean of an apical cell
-unicellular rhizoids are visible on the lower surface of the thalli; they serve to absorb both water and nutrients
What are some defining characteristics to the Genus Ricciocarpus?
-dorsal surface of the thallus is characterized by its patterned appearance
-in the centre of each of these small areas is an inconspicuous pore which leads into an air chamber whose walls are responsible for the appearance of the pattern on the surface
-these large AIR CHAMBERS give the thallus a somewhat fleshy look
How do Riccia reproduce?
Sexual
-by means of ANTHERIDIA and ARCCHEGONIA
-they are embedded in the upper surface of the thallus, sometimes within a groove between the air chambers
-the EGG CELL of the archegonium is fertilized by a BIFLAGELLATE ANTHEROZOID after breakdown of the neck canal cells
-the diploid embryo develops within the archegonium and is protected by the wall of the archegonium and the gametophyte tissues in which it is embedded
-unlike most other bryophytes, the whole sporophyte completes its development embedded in the thallus and therefore has a very simple structure
-the sporangial wall is only one cell thick
-each spore mother cell in the capsule undergoes meiosis to form 4 haploid spores, which tend to remain together in TETRADS
-as the spores mature the capsule wall decays leaving he spores free in the enlarged base, or VENTER, of the archegonium
-the individual spores are finally released by the decay of the entire thallus, and they germinate the following season
-photosynthesis doesn't take place in sporophyte, therefore making the sporophyte totally dependent on the gametophyte for its food supply
What are some defining characteristics to the Genus Marchantia?
-dichotomously branched thallus
-has air chambers filled with perpendicular columns of photosynthetic cells arising from the floor of the chambers
-have asexual structures called GEMMAE (other flashcards)
-have sexual structures called ARCHEGONIA & ANTHERIDIA (other flashcards)
-have thick SCALES and thread like RHIZOIDS on the ventral surface of the thallus
-scales serve to protect the growing apical region
-has 2 types of rhizoids: smooth and peg like
Go over the life cycle of Marchantia.
-ANTHERIDIA and ARCHEGONIA are borne on ANTHERIDIOPHORES and ARCHEGONIOPHORES respectively
-they can regarded as upright, greatly modified portions of the thallus resulting from specialized divisioin of the apical cell of the thallus lobe, this being the reason why they terminate the lobe
-at maturity, the antheridia are borne on the upper surface of the antheridiophores while the archegonia, and ultimately the sporophytes, hang down from the lower surface of the archegoniophores
-like the antheridia, the archgonia also differentiate on the upper surface
-archegonia occur in radiating rows on the upper surface of the archegoniophores
-fertilization occurs early in the development of the archegoniophore while the archegonia are still in an upright position, the antherozoids being transferred from a different thallus by rain splash
-after fertilizatio has occurred, there is a rapid growth of tissues in the centre of the disc, which results in the archegonia being moved ino a hanging position between the lobes
-each archegonium is protected by a cylindrical sheath
-sporophytes of Marchantia are much larger than those of Riccia, with tissues differentiated into a FOOT, SETA and CAPSULE
-foot serves to anchor the sporophyte to the gametophyte and absorbs food from the gametophyte
-before the release of spores, the seta elongates and pushes the capsule, which had already outgrown the archegonium wall (VENTER) and is now in an exposed position
-capsule wall is only 1 cell thick
-breaking of the capsule now takes place by irregular rupture of the wall
-liberation of the spores is assisted by the coiling the uncoiling of ELATERS, sterile cells with unequally thickened walls
-the elaters change shpae as the thickened parts of their walls expand in conditions of high atmospheric humidity
-they then coil and contract when the humidity drops again
What are some defining characteristics to the Genus Pellia?
-a thallose liverwort which belongs to a group characterized by much thinner and less elaborate gametophyte
-the thallus only one or a few cells thick except for a midrib (COSTA) which is multilayered and runs down the centre of each thallus lobe
-ther archgonia and antheridia are located on the midrib of the same plants (MONOECIOUS)
-throughout most of its development, the sporophyte is protected by the venter and a flap of gametophyte tissue
-elongation of the seta causses the capsule to break throught the venter before dehiscence occurs
-capsule wall is 2 cells thick, rather than one, as in Marchantiales
What are some defining characteristics to the Genus Porella?
-thallus lobes have wavy and incised margins
-majority of the lieverworts are leafy rather than thallose, taxonomists make use of the range of leaf shpae and leaf structure to distinguish species
-usually the gametophyte lies prostrate on the substrate of the stem there characteristically occurs a third row of leaves, forming an overlapping 'braid' called AMPHIGASTRIA (these leaves are smaller than the lateral leaves and often have a different shape, rhizoids may also occur and these arise from the outer, cortical layers of the stems)
-capsule wall is multilayered, thicker than any previously studied, and marks the culmination of a sequence of increasing sturdiness
-cells of the capsule wall thicken except along 4 radiating lines where the wall splits when the capsule dehisces
-spore discharge is aided by ELATERS which, with thei spiral thickenings, are clearly visible
-unlike Pellia, the sporophyte is attached to the gametophyte on a leafy side brance
What are some defining characteristics to the Phylum Bryophyta?
-AKA mosses
-mosses are more commonly noticed than liverworts because they grow in more accessible places and are usually larger and more abundant
-all moss gametophytes are LEAFY and the leaves are radially arranged rather than in 2 lateral rows as in the majority of leafy liverworts
-sporophyte emerges protected by the upper portion of the archegonium called the CALYPTRA
-sporophyte has determinate growth like the liverworts
-sporogenous tissue always oversrches or encircles a central column of sterile tissue, the COLUMELLA
-distinguished by PROTONEMA which arises on germination of the spores and which may persist for a number of months before giving rise to more highly differentiated leafy shoots of the mature gametophyte
-moss classifications vary, but one widely accepted schem recognizes 3 classes: Sphagnidae, Andreaeidae, Bryidae
What are some defining characteristics to the Order Sphagnales?
-peat mosses are represented by a single geus, Sphagnum, which has about 350 spp
-plants of wet, boggy, and acidic habitats where they grow in thick mats
-abundant in cool, temperate zones where wet soils occur with high atmospheric humidity and relatively low temps
-because of the acidic environments, nice preservations have been done in peat moss areas
What are some defining characterisitcs to the Genus Sphagnum?
-protonuma is flat and lobed, similar to miniature liverwort thallus, and also possesses rhizoids
-a single upright stem arises from the protonema
-the stem branches in a unique manner with side branches arising in groups of 3 to 8
-outer layer of stem cells is composed of inflated HYALINE (glassy) cells with pores and fibril (ring like) thickened walls

-leaves of Sphagnum are small and crowded together
-leaves are 1 cell thick and lack a midrib
-2 leaf cell types, large ones alternating with smaller cells and thus forming net like pattern
-small cells contain chloroplast
-large colourless hyaline cells contain chloroplasts when young, but as the leaf matures the chloroplasts and protoplasts disappear
-hyaline cells of the leaves, stmes and side brances are able to absorb and hold large quantities of water, thereby maintaining the habitat of this plant
-branch clusters arise at every fourth stem leaf
-the only moss that lacks a leaf midrib
How does Sphagnum reproduce?
Asexually
Two ways:
1)By branching of the leafy stems by buds at the base of the stem
-branches are detached by the decay of the basal parts and become independent plants
-may also take the form of stolons which creep on or beneath the substrate and then grow upward as leafy stems
2)By secondary protonemata
-the original protnema usually produces only a single upright stem
-secondary protonemata are produced most abundantly as branches of the rhizoids at the base of the leafy stems, but they may also grow directly from the stems and even leaves

Sexually
-capitulum bears the antheridia and archegonia
-sporophyte is short lived and lacks a seta
-sporophyte quickly loses its photosynthetic ability and the capsule becomes dark brown at maturity
-as it dries in the sunshine, the capsule shringks until the air that is contained is held under considerable pressure
-eventually the OPERCULUM is blown off with an audible popping sound, dispersing the spores in a cloud
-spores germinate to form thalloid protonemata which possess rhizoids
What are some defining characteristics of the Class Bryidae?
-AKA true mosses
-usually recede lichens in succession on soil, but the converse often occurs on rocks, since lichens are capable of eroding some rocks by chemical action
-2 growth forms of mosses can be distinguished:
--Cushion mosses: have erect, seldom branched gametophytes with the archegonia, and later sporophytes, terminating the main stem &...
Feather mosses: have sporophytes arising from short lateral branches
-most leaves are a single cell thick but have a MULTILAYERED MIDRIB (COSTA)
-it is not uncommon for the cell walls to have peg like projections or for the ends of cells to project from the leaf margins as teeth
-
What are some defining characteristics of the Genus Mnium?
-have relatively large leaves with a well developed MIDRIB
-in male and female gametophytes, the leaves are attached to the stem at a fairly wide angle, theis means that water is not able to ascend the gametophytes externally because the leaves do not provide a capilary space between themselves and the stem
-must rely on internal conduction of water to replace that lost by evaporation, therefor may show some internal differentiation of tissues to facilitaet this internal movement of water
-may be DIOECIOUS or MONOECIOUS
Go over the life cycle of Mnium
-at the time of fertilization, the antheridium absorbs water and swells
-cap cells are forced of and the sperm emerge
-in larger mosses, sperm are splashed by raindrops
-in smller spp, sperm may swim from the antheridia to the archegonia throuh a film of water that frequently covers the tops of the plants
-sperm swim to the apex of the archegonium and down the narrow passage that leads to the egg
-fertilization may occur in more than one archegonium, but usually only one sporophyte develops

-sporophyte generation begins with the fertilized egg developing rapidly into an elongate, spindle shaped embryo
-the production of a FOOT, SETA, and ACPSULE is the result of the activities of 2 apical cells, one located at each end of the embryo
-apical part of the archegonium enlarges and elongates and develops into a cap called the CALYPTRA
-as the sporophyte lengthens, the calyptra is ruptured at the base and borne upward
-the embryo develops chloroplasts while very young and still enclosed within the archegonium
-as the sporophyte matures, chloroplasts become more abundant throughout the stalk and outer tissues of the capsule
-manufacture of carbohydrates is facilitated by the presence of STOMATA in the epidermal tisses of the capsule which increase the rate of gas exchange
-when the sporophyte is fully mature, the chlorophyll fades and the capsule turns brown
-although the f'n thing doesn't say, I'd assume that the shrinking and air pressure eventually opens the thing up, releasing the spores
-chlorophyll allows the sporophyte generation to be somewhat independent of the gametophyte generation for food materials, but is still dependant on the gametophyte leaf for water and essential minerals
What are some defining characteristics to the Order Polytrichales?
-stems are more rigid than in other mosses and stand erect despite their size (up to 20cm)
-the upper surface of the midrib have parallel LAMELLAE (5 to 10 cells high, apical cell hyaline, rest have chloroplast) which run most of the length of the lance shaped leaf
-the rest of the leaf is only one cell layer thick and usually folds over the midrib to protect it from desiccation in dry conditions
-leaves of the fertile heads of the gametophytes are modified and often highly colored in the case of the male gametophyte so that the fertile tips are often referred to as flowers
-release of the operculum reveals the expanded head of the COLUMELLA
-at this stage, the capsule looks like a drum with a ring of small PERISTOME TEETH around the circumference
-between the teeth are pores leading to the spore cavity
-teeth are fixed and do not aid in spore dispersal as in Mnium and many other mosses
-spores in Polytrichum are released through the pores between the peristome teeth by the wind shaking the capsule, the so called "pepper pot" mechanism
-spore distribution occurs in dry situations, thus some spp may be found in hummock hollow complexes of bogs, occupying the tops of hummocks, with Sphagnum in the wetter hollows