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73 Cards in this Set

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When you vaccinate a young animal for the first time (primary immunization by subcut. injection) or when an animal is infected w/a particular infectious agent for the 1st time, you expect this type of antibody response predominates...
...IgM
B cells differ from other prof. APCs in Ag take up which occurs by...
...receptor-mediated endocytosis
T or F:
IL-4 is required for activated B cell proliferation and Ig production.
True
T or F:
IL-4 is produced from T-helper 2 cells
true
T or F:
The action of IL-4 is inhibited by Th1-derived interferon gamma.
True
T or F:
The Fc portion of IgG is important for complement binding.
True
T or F:
The Fc portion of IgG is important for binding to Fc receptors on cells such as macrophages and neutrophils and facilitating phagocytosis.
True
T or F:
The Fc portion of IgG is important for binding to Fc receptors (FcRn) in the intestinal wall of newborns and thus facilitating absorption of maternal antibodies in colostrum
True
What is unique about the IgG2 and IgG3 subclasses of camelids?
They have no light chains
What mechanisms do ruminants use to generate their B-cell Ig diversity?
Gene conversion
Somatic mutation
Base insertion/deletion
Where do B-cells mature?
Bone marrow
Cloacal bursa
Peyer's patches
Dendritic cells are 100x more efficient than macrophages or B-cells in which function?
Presenting antigen to T-helper cells
Which complements molecule is required for all 3 complement reactions (and is found deficient in a Brittany Spaniel colony)?
C3
Which complement molecule has functions which include anaphylatoxin release, neutrophil activation and chemotaxis, increased vascular permeability, and smooth muscle contractions.
C5a
What are the 3 pathways by which the complements system can be activated?
Lectin
Classical
Alternative
What are two pathways by which apoptosis may be triggered?
Intrinsic (perforin)
Extrinsic (Fas)
T or F:
In order to kill intracellular bacteria, macrophages need help from a cytotoxic T cell.
False
T or F:
In order to kill intracellular bacteria, macrophages need to be activated by IL-4 and IL-10 produced by Th2 cell.
False
T or F:
In order to kill intracellular bacteria, macrophages need to be activated by interferon-gamma produced by Th1 or NK cell.
True
T or F:
Macrophages can kill intracellular bacteria directly.
False
Why can a newborn animal not be vaccinated in the first few weeks after parturition?
Maternal Ab in the animal delay the onset of immune response to vaccine via negative feedback process.
Failure of passive transfer of Ab is diagnosed if IgG levels are below what value?
400mg/dL
When should puppies and kittens be first vaccinated for major diseases?
6 - 9 wks
T or F:
Monoclonal or polyclonal gammopathies are usually diagnosed by electrophoresis of serum.
True
T or F:
Lymphocytes will not respond to an antigen if they first met that antigen later in fetal life.
False (should be EARLY in fetal life)
T or F:
BVD (Bovine Viral Diarrhea) infection between 50 and 120 days of fetal life is a classic example of tolerance to an infectious agent.
True
T or F:
MLV (modified live virus) vaccines are recommended for pregnant animals since it induces better T-cell mediated immunity
False
T or F:
Placental route or colostral route of passive transfer of immunity in different species is determined by placental structure.
True
T or F:
Transforming growth factor beta is primarily responsible for the IgM to IgA switch and Il6 is mainly responsible for terminal differentiation of B cell to IgA producing plasma cell
True
T or F:
The utility of vaccination relies on the persistence of antibodies or effector cells
False
T or F:
For viruses, intracellular bacteria and parasites, live vaccines are preferred because of predominant Th1 immunity and interferon production.
True
T or F:
TLRs (toll like receptors) present on cells such as macrophages play a central role in recognizing invading microbes.
True
BCG from Mycobacterium bovis was used as a vaccine for TB before 1980s. BCG stimulates mostly the following cells:
A. Cytotoxic T cells
B. Natural killer cells
C. Eosinophils
D. B cells
D. B cells
Most of the signal transduction in immune cells and other critical processes such as cell growth, cell division are all regulated by kinases that have the following important function:
A. Splice the DNA
B. Increase the synthesis of CD molecules
C. Degrade the ubiquinated proteins
D. Protein phosphorylation
D. Protein phosphorylation
B cell receptor (BCR) is an antibody attached on the surface of its cell membrane by transmembrane domain. What class of antibody is BCR?
A. IgG
B. Monomeric IgM
C. Pentameric IgM
D. IgE
B. Monomeric IgM
T helper cells (Th1 & Th2) respond to exogenous antigens by recognizing:
A. Antigens by MHC class I on virus infected cells
B. Antigens presented by MHC class II on APCs
C. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on APC
D. PAMPs on the bacteria
B. Antigens presented by MHC class II on APCs
In addition to antigens, the following costimulators are required for effective T helper cell response:
A. Receptors such as CD40 on APC
B. Cytokines such as IL-12 and IL-1
C. Adherence molecules such as integrins
D. All of the above
D. All of the above
Fab fragments of antibodies linked to drugs can be used to target:
A. Virus-infected cells in an animal
B. Tumor cells in an animal
C. Germinal centers of lymph nodes
D. A and B
D. A and B
Th2 and B cell interaction is essential for:
A. upregulation of IL-4, IL-5, and costimulatory ligands.
B. formation of germinal centers and development of memory B cells
C. Immunoglobulin class switching
D. All of the above
D. All of the above
The utility of vaccination relies of the production of:
A. Antibodies
B. Memory B and T cells
C. Macrophages
D. T cells
B. Memory B and T cells
T-independent antigens such as E. coli LPS have the following characteristics:
A. No memory cell formulation
B. No immunoglobulin class switching
C. Only IgM response in secondary immune response
D. All of the above
D. All of the above
Some viruses produce Virokines, the function of which is:
A. To inhibit anti-viral immune response
B. To stimulate anti-viral immune response
C. To increase the production of interferons
D. To suppress the production of virus
A. To inhibit anti-viral immune response
A dog suffering from rheumatoid arthritis has high IL-1 levels and low IL-1RA levels in its joint. As a veterinarian, you administer IL-RA into the joint to counteract the IL-1 activity. What is the mechanism of action of IL-RA?
A. Binds to IL-1 very tightly
B. Destroys IL-1 by splicing
C. Blocks the IL-1 receptor by binding to it and thus preventing signal transduction
D. All of the above
C. Blocks the IL-1 receptor by binding to it and thus preventing signal transduction
Conventional antigenic peptide fills the groove between the TCR chains and MHC molecules. In contrast, the following antigen binds outside the groove linking TCR and MHC molecule triggering a powerful T-cell response.
A. Snake venom antigen
B. Poison ivy
C. Superantigen
D. Glycogen
C. Superantigen
Cytokines that bind only to receptors on cells in close proximity to the cell of origin are known to have the following effects:
A. Paracrine effects
B. Autocrine effects
C. Endocrine effects
D. Inflammatory effects
A. Paracrine effects
When you give an oral or nasal live vaccine, as a veterinarian you expect that the animal induces mucosal immunity. Mucosal immunity is mainly provided by:
A. IgM
B. IgA
C. IgG
D. IgD
B. IgA
IgeE which binds to mast cells and eosinophils participates in the following:
A. Allergic reactions
B. Parasitic infections
C. Viral infections
D. A and B
D. A and B
Idiotypes are unique antigenic determinants present on variable region of an individual antibody molecule. The importance of idiotypes is:
A. Useful in paternity testing
B. They regulate the immune response
C. They can be used for vaccination against tumors
D. B and C
D. B and C
Camel and Llama IgG2:
A. Lacks light chains
B. Can be used as "nanobodies" to target cancer cells
C. Serves no function as they are defective
D. A and B
D. A and B
One of the most important mechanisms of deleting unwanted genes during the process of generating BCR or TCR diversity is by:
A. Receptor editing
B. Gene conversion
C. Somatic mutation
D. Looping out
D. Looping out
In ruminants and pigs, the major method of generating diversity consists of inserting segments of pseudogenes into V regions of immunoglobulins. This process is called as:
A. Gene conversion
B. Base insertion
C. Gene recombination
D. Somatic mutation
A. Gene conversion
Somatic mutation occurs in this lymphoid organ
A. Spleen
B. Lymph node germinal center
C. Bone marrow
D. Thymus
B. Lymph node germinal center
When you vaccinate a young animal for the first time (primary immunization) or when an animal is infected with a specific infectious agent for the first time, you expect this type of antibody response predominates:
A. IgG
B. IgM
C. IgE
D. IgA
B. IgM
One of the most important complement molecules required for all the three complement pathways and its deficiency as seen in a colony of Brittany Spaniels leads to increased susceptibility to bacterial infection is:
A. C1
B. C2
C. C3
D. C9
C. C3
Some of the complement functions include:
A. Opsonization to enhance phagocytosis
B. Lysis of bacteria and infected cells
C. Clearance of immune complexes
D. All of the above
D. All of the above
Complement receptor 1 (CR1) which binds to C3B and presents on RBCs has an important function to remove 90% of the following molecule from the blood:
A. Virus infected cells
B. Tumor cells
C. Immune complexes
D. All of the above
C. Immune complexes
The 3 pathways by which the complement system may be activated are:
A. Endogenous, exogenous, and perforin pathways
B. Intrinsic, extrinsic, and classical pathways
C. Classical, alternative, and lectin pathways
D. All of the above
C. Classical, alternative, and lectin pathways
Dendritic cells are 100x more efficient than macrophages or B cells in this following function:
A. Kill virus-infected cells
B. Present antigen to T helper cells
C. Pinocytosis
D. Secrete antibodies
B. Present antigen to T helper cells
Virus infected cells are not killed if the cytotoxic T cells do not receive these signals:
A. Recognitation by TCR of self-antigen associated with MHC class II molecule
B. Recognition by TCR of specific viral-antigen associated w/MHC class I molecule
C. Cytokines such as IL-2 and interferon-gamma produced by Th1 cells
D. B and C
D. B and C
In an animal infected with Brucella abortus, which is an intracellular bacteria, macrophages can kill B. abortus but needs to be activated by:
A. IL-4 and IL-10 cytokines produced by Th2 cell
B. Interferon-gamma produced by Th1 cell or NK cell
C. Cytotoxic T cells
D. Antibodies to bacteria
B. Interferon gamma produced by Th1 cell or NK cell
Cytotoxic T cells use the following main mechanism to kill virus infected or tumor cells
A. Classical pathway
B. Perforin (intrinsic) pathway
C. Exogenous pathway
D. Alternative pathway
B. Perforin (intrinsic) pathway
Neutrophils, macrophages which carry antibody receptors can kill tumor cells by the following activity and this activity is one of the major anticancer mechanisms of already launched therapeutic antibodies such as Herceptin, that bind to HER2 antigen expressed on metastatic breast cancer.
A. antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity
B. complement activation
C. Perforin and granzymes pathway
D. Fas (extrinsic) pathway
A. Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity
T or F:
B cells recognize processed foreign proteins in MHC antigens where as T cells recognize "free foreign proteins".
False
T or F:
Th1 cell promotes cytotoxic T cell activation.
True
T or F:
A monoclonal antibody binds to various epitopes on an antigen.
False
T or F:
An example of antagonistic action of cytokines is IL-4 and interferon gamma.
True
T or F:
Fc fragment of IgG is important for placental or colostrum antibody transfer.
True
The variable region of the T-cell receptor (TCR) can undergo somatic mutation.
False
T or F:
Alternative pathway of complement activation is dependent on antibody.
False
T or F:
T cells mature in bone marrow of all mammals.
False.
T or F:
Monoclonal or polyclonal gammopathies are usually diagnosed by patient's serum electrophoretic patterns.
True
T or F:
Toll-like receptors present on cells such as macrophages play a central role in recognizing invading microbes.
True
Natural Killer Cells play a major role in:
A. Acute inflammation
B. Allergic reaction
C. Killing tumor cells
D. Killing bacteria
C. Killing tumor cells