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68 Cards in this Set

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Puberty in the dog is...
...onset of the 1st estrus
What structure obscures the canid cervix from visual examination?
dorsomedial fold
What organism yields the most information upon vaginal culture of the bitch?
none! lots of stuff lives in there
Predict the relative levels of estrogen and progesterone in the receptive bitch.
dropping to basal E2
raising progesterone
Predict the relative levels of estrogen and progesterone in the proestral bitch
high E2
progesterone is basal
What is unique about the ovulated canid oocyst?
Oocyte ovulated as a primary oocyte (stuck in meiosis I)
What morphological vaginal change is associated with the fertile period in the bitch?
Creunlation
What is the 2 day rule in breeding bitches?
LH surge day 0
2d before ovulation
2d primary oocyte to secondary oocyte (fertile oocyte)
2d oocyte remains fertile
How is testicular volume calculated in the stallion?
L x W x H x 0.5233
What are signs of libido in the stallion?
Restless, pawing, vocalizing, erection, flehmen, sniffing, licking
Where does the gel come from?
Accessory sex glands
How much motility should be present after 6h in raw semen? After 24 h in refrigerated semen?
10% motility for both
What are the major transmissible diseases tested for during a stallion breeding soundness exam?
Equine viral arteritis
Taylorella equigenitalum
What is normal horse seminal pH?
a) 6.4 - 6.8
b) 6.8 - 7.2
c) 7.2 - 7.7
d) 7.4 - 7.8
c) 7.2 - 7.7
What levels of alkaline phosphatase indicate a complete ejaculation?
>2500 U/L
Put the following in order for the mare estrus cycle:
LH peak
Ovulation
Estrogen Peak
FSH Peak
FSH peak
E2 peak
Ovulation
LH peak
How large does an equine follicle have to be before ovulation can be induced?
35mm
How much of the mare's vulvar cleft should be below the pelvic floor?
70%
What are the 3 barriers that the mare's uterus has to the outside world?
Vulva
Vaginovestibular sphincter
Cervix
If a mare's cervix looks pale and relaxed, this indicates which stage?
Anestrus
If the mare's cervix is pale, dry, tight, and projecting into the vagina, which stage does this indicate? Which hormone is predominant?
Diestrus (progesterone)
Unremarkable ovaries with few follicles present, all <20mm in diameter describes...
...anestrous ovaries
Why is ultrasound mapping prior to pregnancy important in the mare?
differentiates twins
Horses are:
a) polyestrous long-day breeders
b) monestrous short day breeders
c) polyestrous short-day breeders
d) monestrous long day breeders
a) polyestrous long-day breeders
How much continuous light is necessary to cause cycling in mares?
>16hrs
Where should mares be inseminated? Cows?
Mares - uterotubal junction ipsilateral to ovulation
Cows - uterine body
Regarding testicular pathology in the stallion, this condition usually presents as a non-painful, unilateral hard scrotal swelling.
Testicular tumor (usually seminoma)
What is the hallmark of testicular degeneration upon semen evaluation?
Oligospermia with normal seminal ALP; round sperm precursors and giant cells
Regarding testicular pathology in the stallion, this accounts for 2 - 10% of stallion colics.
Inguinal hernia
(most common on the L)
Choose your 'coele...
...pathologic accumulation of serous fluid between visceral and parietal layers of the vaginal tunic.
Hydrocoele
Choose your 'coele...
...rupture of the tunica albuginea.
Hematocoele
Choose your 'coele...
...nonpainful enlargement of the spermatic cord.
Varicocoele
Persistent erection =
priaprism
paraphimosis is...
a) persistent erection
b) inability to withdraw penis
c) inability to protrude penis
b) inability to withdraw penis
What are major causes of orchitis and epididymitis in the stallion?
Strep zooepidemicus
Pseudomonas mallei
How long is a mare's oocyte viable after ovulation?
<8 hours
When does maternal recognition of pregnancy occur in the mare? What initiates this?
By day 10-15, embryo motility prevents the release of PGF2a from the endometrium
When does equine embryo fixation usually occur? Implantation?
d16 fixation; implantation d35
If EED occurs by day 45, how soon after fetal loss will the mare come back into cycle?
LOOOOOOOOONG time! About 295 days! Once e-cups are in place (d 35), pregnancy will last no matter what!
How large is the equine fetus by:
3mos
5mos
6mos
8mos
10mos
3 (kitten)
5 (rabbit)
6 (beagle)
8 (lamb)
10 (german shepherd)
The equine fetus is unable to change position by what timeframe?
By 6 months!
How often should EHV vaccine be given during pregnancy (and when)?
5, 7, and 9 months
What roles do the placenta, hypothalamus, and pituitary have on parturition and when is the effect seen?
Placenta (relaxin, last half gestation)
Hypothalamus (PRL, 4-6 wks pre foal)
PItuitary (oxytocin; @ foaling)
What is the last chance to change positioning in parturition?
Stage 1
What should the colostral density be?
>1.060
Where is the placenta usually retained? What is the main complication? What is a good treatment?
Retained at the tips of the horns; causes laminitis; treat w/oxytocin, abx, tetanus antitoxin
How can parturition be induced after 320 days in the mare?
looooooow dose oxytocin
What is the most common causes of vaginitis and cervicitis in the mare?
irritation (air, urine, chemicals, particulates)
breeding/foal trauma
80% of all isthmitis occurs secondarily to _____________.
endometritis
Which layers are involved in postpartum metritis? What is the most common etiologic agent?
Endometrium, Myometrium, Serosa

EEEEEEEEEE COLIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII
What are two ecbolics and what is their duration of action?
Oxytocin (30-40 min)
PGF2a (<5hrs)
T or F:
Pyometra in the horse is treated similarly to the cow (no abx and PGF2a)
True!
The most common cause for infertility in mares is...
...endometritis
What are common STD causes of endometritis in mares?
Taylorella, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas
Which of the following are congruent with pyometra in the mare?
a) pyrexia
b) tachycardia
c) vulvar discharge
d) tachypnea
e) prolonged anestrus
c) vulvar discharge
e) prolonged anestrus
NO SYSTEMIC SIGNS
Endometritis, by definition, extends no deeper than the...
stratum spongiosum
What are signs of Taylorella infection?
Shortened diestrous
Copious mucopurulent discharge
Severe acute multifocal lymphocytic endometritis
Abortion within 60d of gestation
How is Taylorella treated?
IU ampicillin or penicillin
clean clitoral fossa w/chlorhex or nitrofurazone
What is the best diagnostic test for endometritis? What is the best treatment?
cytology for dx; lavage for tx
What is the cause for persistent post-breeding endometritis?
Influx of PMNs into uterine lumen following the chemotactic effect of sperm
What are some normal uterine flora?
NO NORMAL UTERINE FLORA
Describe the mare estrus cycle stage for an endometrial biopsy that shows...
...straignt glands, straight columnar cells, and nesting.
Estrus
Describe the mare estrus cycle stage for an endometrial biopsy that shows...
...straignt glands and low cuboidal cells
metestrus
Describe the mare estrus cycle stage for an endometrial biopsy that shows...
...tall columnar cells, tortuous glands, dnesely glandular, and no nesting
diestrus
Which endometrial biopsy grade carries a 10-50% chance of conception and maintenance of pregnancy?
Grade IIB
A bovid with ovaries but male genitalia describes..
...female pseudohermaphrodite
The overall incidence of pregnancy loss in mares is...
...5-15%
What are the two ways that bacteria can enter the parturient system to cause abortion?
Via the cervix
Via maternal circulation