• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/121

Click to flip

121 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the two types of hyperkaratosis?
Ortho and parakeratosis
What are the main categories (think layers) of skin that can react to injury?
Epidermis
Dermis
Subcutis
Adnexa
T or F:
Nuclei are present in the keratinocytes with orthokeratosis.
False! This describes parakaratosis!
Does this image depict ortho or parakaratosis?
Orthokaratosis (note the anuclear keratinocytes)
Does this image depict ortho or parakaratosis?
Parakaratosis (note the nucleated keratinocytes)
T or F:
Hypergranulosis is a characteristic of orthokeratosis.
False! HYPOgranulosis (anuclear) is a characteristic of parakaratosis.
What is the most important piece of information to determine if a sample is normal skin or shows epidermal hyperplasia?
Need location of biopsy
Premature keratinization is also known as...
...DYSKERATOSIS
Abnormal development or abnormal maturation describes which process?
Dysplasia
What are some histologic hallmarks of apoptosis?
Condensed nucleus
Hypereosinophilic cytoplasm
What process do the structures indicated by the arrows depict?
Dyskeratosis (dysplasia of keratin)
Is the edema in this image intracellular or intercellular? What is the specific name for this condition?
Intercellular edema = spongiosis
Does this image depict intracellular or intercellular fluid accumulation? What is the term for this process?
Intercellular fluid accumulation
Degeneration (in this case both ballooning and vacuolar degenaration)
Let's play ballooning or vacuolar degeneration...
...occurs basally.
Vacuolar
Let's play ballooning or vacuolar degeneration...
...occurs superficially.
Ballooning
Let's play ballooning or vacuolar degeneration...
...associated with autoimmune disorders.
Vacuolar
Let's play ballooning or vacuolar degeneration...
...associated with viral or metabolic disease.
Ballooning
Disruption of intercellular connections is known as...
...acantholysis
This is a flippin' sweet example of what type of lesion?
Vesicle
What type of lesion does "Gramma" depict? How about her "coccyx"?
Gramma = pustule
Coccyx = crust
What is the main difference between a vesicle and a pustule?
A pustule contains cells (neutrophils)
Dried exudate is also known as...
...crust
The transmigration of leukocytes through the epidermis is also known as...
...exocytosis
What are three reactions to skin injury that involve pigmentation?
hyperpigmentation
hypopigmentation
pigmentary incontinence
Melanophages in the superficial dermis describes which process?
Pigmentary incontinence
Which layer must be damaged in order for there to be pigmentary incontinence?
Stratum basale and basement membrane (allows melanocytes through to be phagocytosed)
T or F:
Pigmentary incontinence is usually a chronic process.
True! Due to chronic irritation or inflammation
T or F:
Hypopigmentation can be genetic OR acquired.
True
What are four reactions to injury that involve dermal collagen? Which is chiefly a genetic defect?
Hyalinization
Lysis
Atrophy
Dysplasia (genetic)
What is the chain of events leading to pachyderma or elephantiasis in the dermis?
Fibroplasia > fibrosis > sclerosis > pachyderma/elephantiasis
What does the blue arrow depict? The purple arrow? What tissue does each involve?
Blue = Solar elastosis (elastic fibers)
Purple = fibrosis (collagen)
What are some abnormal dermal deposits that can occur?
Amyloid
Lipids
Mineralization (Calcium)
Mucin
An acquired mucinous dermal deposit is known as...
...myxedema
What exudates are possible in dermal inflammation? (hint - there are 6)
histiocytic/granulomatous
suppurative
eosinophilic
lymphoplasmacytic
necrotizing
fibrosing
What are the four causes of disease in dermatopathology? Which is most important?
(in order of most to least important)
a. Bacterial
b. Fungal
c. Parasitic
d. Viral infxn
There are three portals of entry for skin infections. What are they?
Follicular
Hematogenous
Direct (penetration)
How are pyodermas classified?
By depth of infection
What is the most common type of pyoderma?
Superficial pyoderma
Puppy pyoderma is better known as..
...superficial staphylococcal pyoderma
A flat or level color change within the skin is also known as a(n)...
...macule
A solid dermal or epidermal elevation that is <1cm is also known as a(n)...
...papule
A solid dermal or epidermal elevation that is >1cm is also known as a(n)...
...nodule
An elevation due to dermal edema is also known as a(n)...
...wheal
In which layer does edema form causing a wheal?
In stratum papillare of dermis
A fluid-filled elevation that is <1cm is known as a(n)...
...vesicle
A fluid-filled elevation that is >1cm is known as a(n)...
Bulla
A cell-filled elevation is known as a(n)...
pustule
What cell type usually fills a pustule?
Granulocytes (neutrophils mostly)
What is a multichambered pustule called?
A pock
Tightly clustured pustules is known as...
...impetigo
T or F:
Crust is a secondary lesion.
True
What are some common secondary skin lesions?
Crust
Scale
Erosion
Ulcer
Fissure
What are some follicular responses to injury? (hint; there are 6)
Hyperkaratosis
Atrophy
Arrest in phase of cycle
Dysplasia
Folliculitis
Furunculosis
What are the three types of folliculitis?
Luminal
Mural
Perifollicular
Follicular destruction due to inflammation is known as...
...furunculosis
What are some common bacterial pathogens causing superficial pyoderma?
Staphlyococci
Streptococci
Corynebacterium
Actinomyces
Dermatophilus
What mediates type I hypersensitivity?
IgE
What mediates type II hypersensitivity?
IgG or IgM
What mediates type III hypersensitivity?
immune complex + IgG or IgM
What mediates type IV hypersensitivity?
Cell-mediated (CD4+ or CD8+ lymphocytes)
Anaphylaxis is another name for which type of hypersensitivty? What cell type is primarily mobilized?
Type I
Mast Cells
What event causes the massive degranulation of mast cells in type I hypersensitivity?
Antibody bridging
What are some common type I hypersensitivity syndromes?
Urticaria (hives)
atopic dermatitis
food + parasite hypersensitivity
anaphylaxis
What type of hypersensitivity features direct cytotoxicity via complement activation?
Type II (autoimmune diseases)
What are some autoimmune skin diseases involving type II hypersensitivity?
Pemphigus complex
Bullous pemphigoid
What are some examples of type III hypersensitivity?
Systemic Lupus Erythematous (SLE)
Hemorrhagic Purpura (Strept. equi)
What are some examples of type IV hypersensitivity reactions?
Fungal dermatitis + Tbc reaction
Atopic dermatitis
Contact hypersensitivity, Graft-versus-host
What type(s) of hypersensitivity does urticaria usually involve?
Type I and III
T or F:
Acute urticaria involves wheals while chronic urticaria involves papules.
True!
The increased vascular permeability shown in cutaneous hypersensitivity is called __________ when dermal and _________when subcutaneous.
urticaria (dermal)
angioedema (subcutaneous)
Which species are commonly afflicted with urticaria/angioedema?
horse and dog
What will be seen histologically with urticaria/angioedema?
mast cells
eosinophils
subepidermal edema
How is the antigen introduced into the body in atopic dermatitis?
inhaled or percutaneously absorbed
What type of hypersensitivity is involved in atopic dermatitis? In which animals is this commonly seen?
Mostly type I (maybe type IV)
dogs, cats, horses
What is the primary clinical sign of atopic dermatitis (grossly)?
pruritis and self trauma from scratching
alopecia
What are common allergens involved in atopic dermitis?
dust mites
pollen
bacteria
What are histopathologic features of acute atopic dermatitis? chronic?
eosiniphilic dermatitis (acute)
hyperplastic epidermis (chronic)
A food allergy is an example of which type of hypersensitivity? In which domestic species is this common?
Type I
kats and dawgs
What is the macroscopic presentation of a food allergy?
pruritis of the ventral abdomen and thorax
cats often involve the head
What is the histopathologic presentation of a food allergy?
Perivascular dermatitis with large numbers of eosinophils and neutrophils, mast cells
What type of hypersensitivity is associated with an insect bite?
Type I and IV
There are multiple factors (7) that cause pathological changes in the skin. What are they?
1. Congenital/heriditary dz
2. Reactions to injury
3. Environmentally-related dz
4. metabolic/nutritional dz
5. hypersensitivity/autoimmune
6. infectious dz
7. neoplasms
What are three major differentials when dealing with bacterial skin diseases?
Pyoderma
Bacterial granulomas
Toxin producing bacteria (systemic or localized)
Which species are commonly afflicted with dermatophilosis? What is a major sign grossly?
Horses, sheep and cattle
WET hair coat
What are some differentials to keep in mind for greasy pig disease?
Exudative dermatitis caused by S. hyicus
Parakeratosis diatatica (Zn deficiency)
Epidermitis exsudativa
Cutaneous strongyloidosis
Scabies
What are two major categories of deep pyoderma?
Folliculitis/furunculosis
Abscesses
What is the major pathogenic factor involved in furunculosis?
Rupture of follicle causes release of keratin which serves as a nidus for an extraordinary inflammatory response
What is the major pathogenic genus in bacterial granulomatous dermatitis? What species does it commonly affect? Is there zoonotic potential?
Mycobacterium spp. affects cats; can be zoonotic
What causes pigeon fever in horses?
Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis
What is a major cause of diamond skin disease in pigs? Is this zoonotic?
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae; zoonotic potential!
What are some major genera causing systemic infections involving the skin?
Streptococcus
Staphylococcus
Erysipelothrix
Clostridium
What is the most common fungal pathogen causing cutaneous mycoses?
Microsporum spp. (Ringworm)
Name three genera of fungi causing superficial dermatitis?
Candida
Malassezia
Microsporum
Why are subcutaneous mycoses difficult to treat? What is an example of an agent causing subcutaneous mycosis?
very destructive!
Sporothrix schenckii
What viral disease strikes rabbits? What are the signs?
Myxomatosis presents with bletheral and genital myxedema and appendicitis
What condition does parapoxvirus cause in animals? In humans? When is it fatal?
Ecthyma contagiosum (fatal when interferes with suckling feeding)
Orf in humans
T or F:
Beak and feather disease is caused by the avian pox virus.
False!
By the beak and feather disease virus!
What are some signs of canine distemper infection?
Demyelinating encephalitis
Interstitial pneumonia
Necrotizing enteritis
Impetigo (secondary)
Hyperkeratosis of foot pads and planum nasale
What is another name for vesicular dermatitis? What is it caused by?
Foot and Mouth Disease;
Caused by a picornavirus (FMDV)
What does ovine herpesvirus 2 cause?
Malignant catarrhal fever
What should a major differential be for deep suppurative dermatitis and panniculitis?
Bacterial (S. aureus)
What should a major differential be for deep eosinophilic dermatitis and panniculitis?
Parasitic (Habronema spp. larvae)
What should a major differential be for deep granulomatous dermatitis and panniculitis?
Fungal infection
What genus of parasitic mite has zoonotic potential?
Sarcoptidae
T or F:
Discoid lupus erythematous affects only the skin.
True!
What are the possible epithelial tumors of the skin?
Papilloma
Trichoblastoma
Squamous cell carcinoma
Apocrine gland tumor
Hair follicle tumor
cyst
What skin tumor is common in young dogs? What is the prognosis?
Cutaneous histiocytoma; might spontaneously regress
Boxers are prone to which tumor type?
Mast cell tumor
Cats are prone to which iatrogenically-induced tumor? What is the prognosis?
Vaccine-associated sarcoma
Pretty bad prognosis...
What is a common dermal to subcutaneous neoplasm in all dogs? What is the prognosis?
Hemangioma; good prognosis with complete excision
What is a common tumor in glabrous skin of dogs? What is the prognosis?
Cutaneous hemangiosarcoma; good prognosis after removal
Where are common regions to find visceral hemangiosarcomas in dogs? What is the prognosis?
Heart (R. auricle), spleen, liver
Poor prognosis
T or F:
Oral melanomas are almost always malignant.
True!
What neoplasms are common in white horses?
Melanomas
What is the most common tumor in the horse? What is the cause of this tumor?
Equine sarcoid; associated with bovine papillomavirus
What are two common tumors of the nail bed in dogs?
Squamous cell carcinoma
Melanoma
T or F:
Equine sarcoids do not metastasize.
True
What is a common neoplasm of all young animals?
Papilloma
What is remarkable about feline squamous cell carcinoma of the toe?
Usually metastasized from a bronchocarcinoma
Where are common regions to find squamous cell carcinoma in the horse?
3rd eyelid, penis, vulva, udder
Where are common regions to find squamous cell carcinoma in the sheep and cattle?
eyelid (cancer eye)