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68 Cards in this Set

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Tetraparesis/plegia with generalized LMN signs can be grouped into which categories?
1) myopathies
2) ventral horn of spinal cord/peripheral nerve/junctionopathies
Tetraparesis/plegia with pelvic UMN and thoracic LMN signs can be localized to a lesion between which vertebrae?
C6-T2 lesion
Tetraparesis/plegia with pelvic and thoracic UMN signs can be localized to a...
C1-C5 lesion
Characterize LMN lesions by:
proprioception
reflexes
muscle tone
muscle bulk
proprioception (reduced)
reflexes (reduced)
muscle tone (reduced)
muscle bulk (rapid atrophy)
Characterize UMN lesions by:
proprioception
reflexes
muscle tone
muscle bulk
proprioception (reduced)
reflexes (normal to hyper)
muscle tone (normal to hyper)
muscle bulk (minimal to slow atrophy)
Spinal cervical trauma often results in what 4 signs:
tetraparesis
Horner's
Respiratory distress
cervical pain
Lesions between which spinal cord segments can affect cutaneous trunci reflex?
segments C8-T2; lateral thoracic n.
What are some indications for positive pressure ventilation?
lack of intercostal fxn
open mouth breathing
PaO2 <60 despite O2 support
What is the typical signalment for cervical fibrocartilagenous emboli and where does it lodge?
Small dogs (Schnauzers and Yorkies) at C6-T2
What is the most common site for cervical IVDD?
C2-3
Tetraparesis/plegia with generalized LMN signs can be grouped into which categories?
1) myopathies
2) ventral horn of spinal cord/peripheral nerve/junctionopathies
Tetraparesis/plegia with pelvic UMN and thoracic LMN signs can be explained by a lesion between which segments?
C6-T2 lesion
Tetraparesis/plegia with pelvic LMN and thoracic UMN signs can explained by a lesion between which vertebrae?
C6-T2 lesion
Characterize LMN lesions by:
proprioception
reflexes
muscle tone
muscle bulk
proprioception (reduced)
reflexes (reduced)
muscle tone (reduced)
muscle bulk (rapid atrophy)
Characterize UMN lesions by:
proprioception
reflexes
muscle tone
muscle bulk
proprioception (reduced)
reflexes (normal to hyper)
muscle tone (normal to hyper)
muscle bulk (minimal to slow atrophy)
Spinal cervical trauma often results in what 4 signs:
tetraparesis
Horner's
Respiratory distress
cervical pain
Lesions in wich spinal segments can affect cutaneous trunci reflex?
C8-T2
What are some indications for positive pressure ventilation?
lack of intercostal fxn
open mouth breathing
PaO2 <60 despite O2 support
What is the typical signalment for cervical fibrocartilagenous emboli and where does it lodge?
Small dogs (Schnauzers and Yorkies) at C6-T2
What is the most common site for cervical IVDD?
C2-3
Which of the following are NOT consistent with medical management of cervical IVDD?
a) cage rest for 4 wks
b) e-collar!
c) steroids + methecarbamol
d) useful if pain and mild ataxia are present
e) only if 1st disease episode
b) e-collar! (NO COLLAR)
d) useful if pain and mild ataxia are present (ONLY for FIRST TIME AND PAIN IS THE ONLY SIGN)
What are the surgical options for treating cervical IVDD? Which is the most common? What is a major peri-op complication of this procedure?
Ventral slot (most common)
Dorsal laminectomy
Fenestration of disc site
(DON'T HIT VERTEBRAL ARTERY)
Where are most nerve sheath tumors found? How are they treated?
80% in brachial plexus;
LEG AMPUTATION
What is the signalment for Wobbler Syndrome?
Where does it usually occur?
Older dobie, dalmation, mastiff, chihuahua, yorkie
1-2 yo great dane
(C3-6)
Which is worse - dynamic or static Wobbler Syndrome?
Dynamic!
You see a 1yo Great Dane dog with pelvic ataxia, short choppy gait, neck pain, exaggerated spinal reflexes in all limbs, and infra/supraspinatus atrophy. where is the lesion? What is likely going on?
C1-C5
Wobbler Syndrome!
Atlanto-axial subluxation is typically a disease of:
a) young small dogs
b) young large/giant breed dogs
c) cats
d) all of the above
a) young small dogs
c) can be cats too!
T or F:
The interface between the occiput and the atlas is not a true joint.
False, this describes the atlanto-axial joint! No synovial membrane and no articular facets between C1/2!
Which are treatment options for atlanto-axial subluxation?
a) conservative management
b) Dorsal vertebral wiring
c) ventral lag-screw arthrodesis
d) ventral pins and cement
ALL work but are dependent on the case!
wiring for tiny dogs, pins for small adult dogs, screws for others
conservative or the cheap owners
Connect the dog to the brain tumor:
dolichocephalic
meningioma
glioma
brachycephalic
dolicho = meningio
brachy = glioma
What are two weird tumors that metastasize to the dog brains?
Mammary and prostatic carcinoma
How can increased intracranial pressure manifest on physical exam?
tortuous or ruptured ocular vessels
What is the most common cause of secondary epileptic seizures in dogs <1yr?
Hydrocephalus
With treatment for hydrocephalus, where is the CSF shunted to?
heart or abdomen
Reduced proprioception, increased reflexes, and increased muscle reflexes to all four limbs indicate a lesion...
...between C1 and C5
Increased pelvic limb reflexes with flaccid thoracic limbs indicates a lesion...
...between C6 and T2
Increased pelvic lesions with normal thoracic limbs indicates a lesion...
...between T3 and L3
Flaccid pelvic limbs with reduced reflexes indicates a lesion...
...between L4 and S3
Bilateral motor dysfunction of the pelvic limbs =
paraparesis
T or F:
Conscious proprioception can determine orthopedic from neurologic lameness.
True!
What is the region innervated by the lateral thoracic n.?
T2 - L4/5
What categories of neuropathies cause asymmetrical neurologic deficits?
Inflammatory
Vascular
Compressive
Horner's syndrome can be associated with spinal lesions at what level?
C1-C5 and C6-T2 (ipsilateral due to T1-3 spinal roots)
Schiff-Sherrington posture is associated with lesions in which region?
T3-L3
Cervical or thoracic injury to the spinal column resulting in bradycardia and hypotension is known as _____________. How is this treated?
...neurogenic shock!
Fluid therapy fixes it in a couple weeks!
Flaccidity distal to a focal lesion is known as _______________.
Spinal Cord Shock
What is the end result to spinal cord ischemia?
Severity of this secondary injury is related to ______________.
Wallerian Degeneration (Myelomalacia)
Severity is related to duration of acute compression.
In what timeframe should corticosteroids be used in spinal injuries? Which drug is best?
Within 8 hours use methylprednisolone sodium succinate (solumedrol)
Which of the following are NOT associated with the 3 compartment theory of spinal fractures?
a) dorsal components include articular facets, dorsal longitudinal ligament, and laminae
b) ventral components include vertebral body and annulus
c) middle components include dorsal annulus, and the dorsal part of the vertebral body
a) dorsal components include articular facets, dorsal longitudinal ligament, and laminae
What are the 2 types of IVDD and how do they differ?
Type I - herniation of the nucleus pulposus through the disc, acute process
Type II - no herniation but fibrosis causes spinal pressure, chronic process
Where does IVDD occur in chondodystrophic breeds? In non chondrodystrophic breeds?
Chondrodystrophic (T12 - L2)
Non (L1-2)
Which of the following is NOT associated with IVDD radiographic diagnosis?
a) mineralized material in the canal
b) altered shape of the vertebral foramen
c) narrowing of the disc space at the site of the lesion
d) extramedullary swelling via myelography
c) narrowing of the disc space at the site of the lesion (narrowing is usually NOT at the site of the lesion)
Which ligament helps to prevent type I IVDD cranial to T10?
Intercapital ligament
What are the chances for surgical success in an IVDD dog where deep pain has been lost for >24 hours? >48 hours?
>24 hours - 25%
>48 hours - 0%
What are bacterial and fungal differentials for inflammatory discospondylitis? Which spaces are most often affected?
Staph intermedius, Strept, Brucella canis; Aspergillus
(affect L7-S1)
What are the common primary spinal cord epidural neoplasms? Intramedullary? Intradural/extramedullary?
Epidural (meningioma, lymphoma)
Intramedullary (glioma)
Intra/extra (meningioma, nephroblastoma)
What are the common metastases to the spinal cord?
LSA, HSA
What are the common primary tumors of the spine? Metastases?
Primary (OSA, FSA, ChondroSA)
Mets (HSA, LSA, MM)
Which tissues/fluids should be cultured for discospondylitis diagnosis?
CSF, blood, urine
Where do arachnoid cysts commonly occur? What is the signalment?
T11-13
young dogs; painless
What is the weird condition where CSF fluid squirts and hits the cord?
Syringo-hydromelia
Lumbosacral diseases causing dysfunctions of the bladder, tail, and anus involve which segments?
S1 and back
Which segments form the cauda equina?
L7 and back
What is a common traumatic cause of neurologic incontinence in cats and how is this repaired?
Tail avulsion
Tx: cut off tail!
A large breed dog has acute onset asymmetric paresis/plegia with absence of paraspinal hyperesthesia. What gives?
Fibrocartilagenous Embolism
If fecal incontinence precedes urinary incontinence, where is the lesion? How 'bout if urinary incontinence precedes fecal incontinence?
Pee b4 poo - L4-S2
Poo b4 pee - T3-L3
An older GSD shows progressive lumbosacral pain, pelvic lameness, urinary dysfunction, and increased patellar reflex. What gives?
Degenerative lumbosacral stenosis! (doesn't really have a hyper patella - more that the sciatic is impinged and the quads don't have the hamstring opposition)
Transitional vertebrae are common at what location? What breed is this commonly seen in?
lumbosacral jxn in GSDs