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51 Cards in this Set

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What is the gel-like tissue between the lens and retina called?
Vitreous humor
You see a red spot in the middle of the lens that you find is actually attached to the posterior aspect of the lens. What is this?
Persistent hyaloid artery
A doberman comes in with a white plaque on the posterior lens capsule. What gives? How can you definitively diagnose this?
Persistent Hyperplastic Primary Vitreous
Dx - US the eye!
You see some floaters in the eye that move opposite to the motion of the eye. What are these?
Asteroid Hyalosis (Ca-phospholipid opacities)
Choose the descriptor for the following vitreous lesions:
- inflammatory fibrinous material in the vitreous
- cholesterol deposits
- Ca-phospholipid opacities
- feline uveitis can cause
Traction band - inflammatory fibrinous material in the vitreous
Synchysis scintillans - cholesterol deposits
Asteroid Hyalosis - Ca-phospholipid opacities
Anterior vitritis - feline uveitis can cause
What are some sequellae to feline anterior vitritis?
Cataracts
Lens luxation
What are the layers of the posterior aspect of the eye from outside to in?
Sclera
Choroid
Tapetum
Retina (tons of little layers in this)
Which of the following are abnormal findings in the fundoscopic exam of a dog?
a) unpigmented fundus
b) round optic disc
c) lack of retinal vessels
d) non-tapetal aspect is ventral
b) round optic disc (it's fully myelinated so it's not round)
c) lack of retinal vessels (definitely has vessels in the choroid)
Which species retina is associated with the following:
- round optic disc
- comb shaped pecten covering optic nerve
- blood vessels don't extend all over the retina
- high density of cones in macular area of the fundus
cat - round optic disc
bird - comb shaped pecten covering optic nerve
rabbit - blood vessels don't extend all over the retina
primate - high density of cones in macular area of the fundus
If you see an animal that is blind and has funny looking legs, what might you be thinking?
Congenital retinal dysplasia
What are the 3 major retinal findings of collie eye anomaly?
Retinal detachment
Optic nerve coloboma
Choroidal hypoplasia
Which of the following are not true regarding equine stationary night blindness?
a) progressive disease
b) cones are for bright light vision
c) rods are for bright light vision
d) animal will have abnormal electroretinogram
e) animal will have decreased dim-light performance
a) progressive disease (not progressive)
c) rods are for bright light vision (no, for dim vision)
Which of the following are not associated with progressive retinal atrophy?
a) burmese cats
b) progressive disease with no real treatment
c) autosomal dominant dz
d) retinal degeneration precedes vision loss by ~2 wks
e) increased pupil size and increased tapetal reflectivity
a) burmese cats (no, dogs, esp labradors)
c) autosomal dominant dz (recessive)
d) retinal degeneration precedes vision loss by ~2 wks (no, vision loss correlates w/disease)
What are some causes of feline retinal degeneration?
Genetics
Taurine deficiency
Toxicities (eg: Baytril)
You see a cat with hyperreflective tapeta and football-shaped lesions on the retina. What is up?
Feline retinal degeneration
What is a top differential for progressive retinal atrophy in dogs?
Sudden Acquired Retinal Degeneration
Which of the following are not associated with sudden acquired retinal degeneration?
a) normal electroretinogram
b) normal appearing retina
c) no real treatment
d) can be acute or progressive
e) concurrent PU/PP/PD and increased ALP
a) normal electroretinogram (abnormal - FLAT LINE)
d) can be acute or progressive (acute really but may appear progressive)
You see an eyeball with pink (not red) blood vessels...one guess as to what type of dog it is (and the condition)!
MINI SCHNAUZER (normally lipemic) and Retinal Lipemia
What are the only vessels and nerves that you can directly visualize in the body?
Retinal vessels and optic nerve!
If you see retinal scars, what should you suspect? If you see active retinal lesions in an animal in the northwest, what might you think?
Scars - old parasite migrations
Active in NW - crypto
Where are the strong points of retinal attachment?
Optic nerve
Periphery
What are the 3 mechanisms of retinal detachment (separation)?
Serous/exudative
Rhegmatogenous (tear)
Traction
Choose the mechanism of retinal detachment:
- inflammatory material in vitreous can cause it
- can be d/t trauma
- retina is present but cannot see underlying tapetum
traction - inflammatory material in vitreous can cause it
rhegmatogenous - can be d/t trauma
serous/exudative - retina is present but cannot see underlying tapetum
What are the rule-outs to hypertensive retinopathy?
Renal disease
Hyperthyroidism
Cardiac disease
Idiopathic (how do you rule that out...)
Who gets hypertensive retinopathy?
Old cats
Choose micropapilla or optic nerve hypoplasia:
- normal PLR
- small optic nerve head
- decreased vision
- decreased PLR
- normal vision
micro - normal PLR
BOTH - small optic nerve head
hypo - decreased vision
hypo - decreased PLR
micro - normal vision
Optic nerve cupping is a sequel to what condition?
Glaucoma!
What are some causes of optic neuritis?
GME
Lymphoma
Trauma
Infectious Disease
I'd say diabetes mellitus in cats too although she didn't say...
Which of the following are not true regarding aqueous production and flow?
a) fluid is created by corneal epithelium
b) aqueous moves through the pupil and into the front of the eye
c) aqueous drains @ iridocorneal drainage angle
d) iridocorneal drainage angle can only be seen via gonioscopy in most animals
e) impingement of the pupillary sphincter leads to glaucoma
a) fluid is created by corneal epithelium (no, ciliary body epithelium)
e) impingement of the pupillary sphincter leads to glaucoma (no, impingement of iridocorneal drainage angle)
What are the classic signs of glaucoma?
Corneal edema
Injected episcleral vessels
Dilated pupil
Choose whether the following are classic signs of glaucoma, ancillary signs, or not associated:
- lens luxation
- blindness
- corneal ulceration
- mydriasis
- buphthalmos
ancillary - lens luxation
ancillary - blindness
NOT - corneal ulceration
CLASSIC - mydriasis
ancillary - buphthalmos
You see white lines in a horse's eye. What are these and what does it mean?
Haab's Striae
Means that there was elevated pressure at some time!
What is the most common cause of genetic glaucoma in dogs? What is the problem with breeding these dogs?
Narrow iridocorneal angle; usually manifests late in life after the bitches have had a few litters!
Who gets goniodysgenesis?
Basset hound
You see a dog with black in its sclera. What is going on if it is a Cairn Terrier? Golden Retriever?
Cairn (pigmentary glaucoma)
Golden (pigmentary uveitis)
How can uveitis cause glaucoma?
Swollen iris obstructs drainage angle
Peripheral anterior synechiae
Angle clogged w/debris
Iris Bombe
What is a uniquely feline cause of glaucoma?
Aqueous misdirection
Which of the following glaucoma treatments decrease vitreous volume?
a) methazolamide
b) oral glycerin
c) timolol maleate
d) latanoprost
e) IV mannitol
b) oral glycerin
e) IV mannitol
Which of the following glaucoma treatments decreases aqueous production?
a) furosemide
b) IV mannitol
c) methazolamide
d) latanoprost
e) pilocarpine
c) methazolamide
e) pilocarpine (also improves outflow)
Which of the following glaucoma treatments may increase uveoscleral outflow?
a) latanoprost
b) pilocarpine
c) epinephrine
d) methazolamide
e) dorzolamide
a) latanoprost (prostaglandin)
(note - pilocarpine is a parasympathomimetic that decreases aqueous production and improves outflow; epinephrine is a sympathomimetic that decreases capillary flow; methazolamide and dorzolamide are carbonic anhydrase inhibitors that decreases aqueous production)
Choose the drug(s) that perform the following:
- decrease aqueous production
- decrease capillary flow
- may aggravate uveitis
- may exacerbate glaucoma
Methazolamide (carbonic anhydrase inhibitors); also pilocarpine - decrease aqueous production
epinephrine - decrease capillary flow
pilocarpine - may aggravate uveitis
atropine - may exacerbate glaucoma
What are some vision preserving procedures for glaucoma treatment? How well do they work in dogs?
Redirect aqueous (valve implants)
Reduce aqueous production (cryo or laser surgery)
Poor prognosis
What are comfort procedures for glaucoma treatment? Which one is more of a comfort treatment for the owner? Which one do you NOT do in cats?
Enucleation
Intraocular prosthesis (for owner)
Chemical ciliary body ablation (not for cats)
Characterize the following drugs (eg: sympathomimetic, sympatholytic, etc):
- pilocarpine
- atropine
- epinephrine
- tropicamide
- timolol
- demecarium Br
- phenylephrine
parasympathomimetic - pilocarpine
parasympatholytic - atropine
sympathomimetic - epinephrine
parasympatholytic - tropicamide
sympatholytic - timolol
parasympathomimetic - demecarium Br
sympathomimetic - phenylephrine
What treatment may be used for melting ulcers?
Anticollagenase (acetylcysteine 5%)
What are some good ocular pain management options?
Atropine (cycloplegic)
Cold compresses
Anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs and Steroids)
Opioids
What are 2 tear enhancements that may be used?
Cyclosporin
Tacrolimus
What is a good treatment for corneal edema?
topical hyperosmotics (5% NaCl)
What are the recommended treatments for glaucoma?
Oral glycerin
IV mannitol
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
What is topical EDTA used for in the eye?
Calcium mineralization
Which tear enhancement is ezzzpensivvve and squirts out fast?
Cyclosporin