• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/84

Click to flip

84 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What conditions comprise diabetic ketoacidosis?
Hyperglycemia
Metabolic acidosis
Ketonuria
Dehydration
Electrolyte abnormalities
What are some common concurrent issues with DKA?
Pancreatitis, infection, estrus, Cushing's, pregnancy, obesity, exogenous steroids
How is DKA treated?
Fluid therapy (intravascular then dehydration)
K and P supplementation
Insulin therapy
What are MAJOR clinical signs of hypoglycemia?
Seizures, ataxia, blindness (also weakness, stupor, coma, etc)
Blood glucose below what value gives hypoglycemia clinical signs?
<40 mg/dL
Which of the following are NOT common causes of hypoglycemia?
a) Cushing's
b) Sepsis
c) Severe liver dz
d) Addison's dz
ALL can cause hypoglycemia!
What is the normal Na:K ratio? Below what value is Addison's a consideration?
Normal >32;
Addison's <27 (often 21)
What can cause a Na:K ratio <27?
Addison's
Parvo
GI dz
Which of the following are NOT common signs of Addison's?
a) Hypotension
b) Hypoglycemia
c) Hypocalcemia
d) Hyponatremia
e) Metabolic alkalosis
c) Hypocalcemia
e) Metabolic alkalosis
What might you see on radiography in a patient with Addison's? On ECG?
Rads (microcardia, small CVC)
ECG (Tented T, disappearing P, wide, bizarre QRS)
What is the treatment plan for an Addisonian crisis?
Shock doses of isotonic crystalloids
Dexamethasone
Treat hypoglycemia
Treat hyperkalemia
What are some signs of acute liver failure?
Anorexia, vomiting, icterus, CNS signs, coagulopathies
What three things comprise triaditis? In which species does this occur?
Pancreatitis, Cholangiohepatitis, and IBD in cats
What do the following hepatic ultrasound values indicate?
Hypoechoic
Hyperechoic
Mixed echogenecity
Hypo (necrosis)
Hyper (infiltrative dz)
Mixed (chronic dz)
What are good ancillary therapies in treating hepatic disease?
Taurine
Carnitine
Thiamine
Milk Thistle, SAM-E, Vit. E
What is a weird sign of hepatic encephalopathy in a cat?
Discolored iris
How is hepatic encephalopathy treated?
Lactulose and/or oral abx
Fluid therapy
High carb/low protein diet
Which of the following is NOT a systemic complication of pancreatitis?
a) hypertension
b) edema
c) pleural effusion
d) chronic renal failure
e) DIC
a) hypertension (should be HYPO)
d) chronic renal failure (should be ACUTE)
What is the best test for pancreatitis?
cPLI or fPLI
Which of the following are NOT lab results in pancreatitis?
a) lipemia
b) azotemia
c) hypoproteinemia
d) hypercalcemia
e) mature leukocytosis
d) hypercalcemia (should be HYPO)
e) mature leukocytosis (would have a LEFT SHIFT)
How is pancreatitis treated?
Pain meds!
Fluid therapy
Nutrition
Maybe antibiotics???
Which of the following are NOT important historical events in a case of dystocia?
a) the bitch in pain and biting her vulva
b) there is green discharge with no whelping
c) there are strong contractions for 20 minutes with no birth
d) a cat has failed to deliver all offspring within 12 hours
e) more than 1 week overdue
c) there are strong contractions for 20 minutes with no birth
d) a cat has failed to deliver all offspring within 12 hours
(should be 50-60 minutes; and a cat can take all day)
Fetal skeletons should be visible by radiography by _______.
45d
What are indications for using oxytocin in canine parturition?
Cervix is DILATED
Fetal position is NORMAL
NO birth canal obstructions
weak/absent contractions
What are indications for a c-section?
narrow pelvis/oversized fetus
uterine torsion
dystocia with no response to medical therapy
What are indications for an en-bloc OVH with a dystocia that doesn't respond to medical therapy?
Dead/necrotic fetus
Uterine rupture
Unwanted future pregnancies
What drugs should you have handy during neonatal resuscitation post c-section?
Naloxone/naltrexone (anti-opiate)
Flumazenil (anti-benzodiazepine)
What are some lab values for a bitch with pyometra?
Pyuria, proteinuria, w/low USG
Azotemia
Left-shift leukocytosis
Who prolapses their uterus more, bitches or queens? When does it occur?
CATS>DOGS; follows parturition
What are common isolates grown from a dog with acute prostatitis? What are good abx for these?
E. coli, Staph/Strept, Mycoplasma
(TMS, Enro, Clavamox, Chloramphenicol)
How is prostatitis treated?
antibiotics
fluids
stool softeners
castration
How are prostatic cysts or abscesses treated?
Surgical drainage
Testicular torsion is common in ________.
cryptorchids
What commonly causes paraphimosis?
Hair around the penis
How is paraphimosis treated?
sedation/anesthesia
remove any constricting hair
hyperosmotic solutions or preputial incision
RARELY amputation, castration, and scrotal urethrostomy
T or F:
Patients with uremia are not necessarily azotemic.
False!
Uremia = clinical signs + azotemia
What are signs of uremia?
Vomiting, azotemia, anorexia, oral ulcers, melena, cachexia, diarrhea, etc...
When should contrast studies of the urinary system be performed?
Undiagnosed dysuria, pollakuria or hematuria
Cystic opacities
Abnormal bladder shape
Caudal abdominal masses
Assess bladder/urethra integrity
Which of the following are NOT urinary emergencies?
a) pollakiuria
b) anuria
c) urolithiasis
d) trauma
e) pyelonephritis
a) pollakiuria
e) pyelonephritis
What are common causes of acute renal failure?
Renal hypertension d/t sepsis
Nephrotoxins
Other infection
Obstruction
Hyper Ca
T or F:
Potassium and Phosphorus may be normal or high in acute renal failure.
True!
What are the three things necessary to diagnose anuria or oliguria?
1) patent urinary collection system
2) adequate hydration
3) MAP>60mmHg
What are the treatments for oliguria/anuria?
Furosemide first!
Try mannitol (once)
Maybe dopamine?
Dialysis or CRRT as a last resort...
What is the next step in a urolith-obstructed patient where the blockage cannot be retropulsed?
Surgery! (urethrotomy or prepubic cystostomy)
T or F:
Treating UTIs in partially obstructed cats is an important aspect of urolith therapy.
False!
Cats rarely get UTIs...this is more for DOGS
What are common historical and physical exam findings in a blocked cat?
Stranguria, pain, vomiting, collapse
Large, firm, painful bladder
Discolored penis
What are the bad sequelae to urinary blockage in cats?
Hyperkalemia
Azotemia and acidosis
BAD ANESTHESIA CANDIDATE
How are blocked cats treated?
Pain meds
IV cath & start crystalloids
Treat hyper K
Urethral cath (under anesthesia) and flush bladder
Put the following in order from most to least likely to rupture.
Kidney
Bladder
Urethra
Ureter
Bladder
Kidney
Urethra
Ureter
What are some possible causes of hydronephrosis?
Urolith
Trauma
Neoplasia
Iatrogenic (spay)
How is hydronephrosis treated?
Restore fluid/electrolyte balance
Unilateral nephrectomy
Maybe a stent
What are the four aspects of a physical exam of a patient with possible abdominal/GI emergency?
Inspect/observe
Auscultate
Palpate
Percuss
Which of the following are abdominal radiographs unable to ascertain?
a) organomegaly
b) ileus
c) foreign bodies
d) obstruction
e) pancreatitis
rads can do it all in the abdomen!!
When should you think about performing an abdominocentesis?
Loss of serosal detail on rads
Penetrating abdominal injury
Persistant abdominal pain
Blunt trauma w/abdominal signs
Post-op complications
When should you NOT perform an abdominocentesis?
Coagulopathy
Dyspnea
Diaphragmatic hernia
Ileus
Organomegaly
Previous abdominal surgery
T or F:
Peritoneal lavage increases the diagnostic power of abdominocentesis nearly 2-fold.
True!
Abdominocentesis is only 50% diagnostic; lavage increases it to 93-98%.
What would cause changes in each of the following abdominocentesis parameters?
High bilirubin
High amylase
High creatinine/K
High lactate
Low pH or glucose
High bilirubin (gall bladder rupture)
High amylase (pancreatitis)
High creatinine/K (bladder rupture)
High lactate (sepsis)
Low pH or glucose (sepsis)
What would cause changes in each of the following gross abdominal fluid values?
Turbulent/flocculent
Green
Pink w/PCV<1%
Red w/PCV>2.5%
Turbulent/flocculent (peritonitis)
Green (biliary leakage)
Pink w/PCV<1% (mild hemorrhage)
Red w/PCV>2.5% (significant hemorrhage)
Septic peritonitis is diagnosed when WBCs exceed ___________.
>1000 cells/uL
Which of the following are NOT always indications for GI surgery?
a) non-responsive pain
b) bile in abdomen
c) abdominal free gas
d) GDV
e) Mesenteric volvulus
c) abdominal free gas
(often an indication but may be a post surgical issue too...)
Regarding GI emergencies, an animal with regurgitation, dysphagia, hypersalivation, and anorexia likely has...
...esophageal foreign body
Regarding GI emergencies, an animal with projectile vomiting likely has...
...Gastric foreign body
Regarding GI emergencies, an animal with vomiting, electrolyte imbalances, and foci of gas-filled intestines likely has...
...intestinal obstruction
Regarding GI emergencies, an animal with hematemesis, melena, anemia, and abdominal pain likely has...
Gastric erosions/ulcers
Regarding GI emergencies, a young dog with hematemesis, melena, and a high PCV likely has...
Hemorrhagic gastroenteritis
What are the 3 types of shock sequelae to GDV?
Hypovolemic
Cardiogenic
Septic
How are most gastric diseases treated?
Analgesia, fluids
Histamine blockers
Sucralfate or other gastroprotectants
Promotility drugs
Anti-emetics
How is rectal prolapse treated?
Stuff the sucker back in
Use hypertonic dextrose
Pursestring suture
Lactulose stool softener
Deworm
What are the 2 types of external cardiac compressions and indications for each?
Heart pump (small animals)
Thoracic pump (larger animals)
T or F:
There is a better prognosis with internal cardiac compressions.
True!
Which drugs are appropriate to give during asystole?
a) epinephrine
b) dopamine
c) vasopressin
d) atropine
e) Na bicarb
a) epinephrine
c) vasopressin
T or F:
Ca should never be given in times of cardiac arrest.
False!
Give Ca with hypocalcemia, hyperkalemia, or Ca-blocker toxicity
If an arrthymia is refractory to everything, what mineral should be given?
Mg
What are common arrthymias in cardiac arrest?
Asystole
Pulseless electrical activity
V-fib
Bradycardia
Which arrthymia is treated by defibrillation?
v-fib
Which arrthymia is treated by epinephrine or vasopressin?
Asystole or PEA
Which arrthymia is treated by atropine?
Bradycardia
What are some ways to assess the efficacy of CPCR?
Femoral pulse
Blood gas
Capnography
T or F:
Low EtCO2 during CPCR has a good prognosis because it indicates good oxygenation.
False! You want 18-24 EtCO2 which indicates good circulation (gas exchange)!!
What is monitored post CPCR to check for tissue perfusion? What drugs can help with perfusion?
Monitor BP, urine output, blood gas, maybe echo
(use DA or Dobutamine)
What are major categories to address after CPCR?
Tissue perfusion
Cerebral perfusion
Myocardial care
Prevent/treat reperfusion injury
Prevent/treat pulmonary trauma
Cerebral damage is assumed when...
...there is no consciousness 15-20 minutes post CPCR.
Which of the following are NOT important to interdict when preventing cerebral trauma post CPCR?
a) hypotension
b) hypervolemia
c) hypocapnia
d) hypothermia
e) hyperthermia
d) hypothermia
(hypothermia isn't a big deal)
Wanna prevent hyper/hypotension, hyper/hypovolemia, hyper/hypocapnia, and hypoxia too
What drugs are thought to help with cerebral injury post CPCR?
Mannitol
Furosemide