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56 Cards in this Set

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Yo, what are the main genital organs in this bitch!?
Ovaries
Uterine tubes
Uterus
Cervix
Vagina
Vulva
Mammary glands
What are the endocrine and exocrine functions of the ovaries?
Endocrine - Estrogen, progesterone, androgens
Exocrine - female gametes
What are the functions of the female reproductive system?
Production of oocytes
Transport of male and female gametes
Capacitation of sperm
accomodation of developing embryo/fetus
Parturition
Hormone production
What are the two main regions of the ovary? What does each contain? Which is deepest (and what species has these swapped)?
Medulla - deepest; contains blood vessels
Cortex - superficial, contains developing oocytes
Switched around in horses
What is the ovarian capsule called?
Tunica albugenia of the ovary
What is the histological makeup of the ovarian cortex?
Follicles
Corpora lutea
Interstitial cells
Stromal elements
What is the function of corpora lutea?
Produce progesterone
What is the histological makeup of the medulla of the ovary?
Vessels, lymphatics, nerves
Loose CT
What is the process of creating oocytes called?
Oogenesis
Where do primordial germ cells form? When do they become oogonia?
Yolk sac
When they migrate to the gonadal ridge
T or F:
The maturing oocyte arrests as a secondary oocyte before or shortly after birth.
False! They arrest as Primary Oocytes and mature (and arrest) as Secondary Oocytes at puberty.
What are the five levels of follicular development?
Primordial follicle
Unilaminar primary follicle
Multilaminar primary follicle
Antral (secondary) follicle
Mature (tertiary) follicle
ID these stages of follicular development
A - Primordial follicle
B - Unilaminar primary follicle
C - Multilaminar primary follicle
D - Antral (secondary) follicle
E - Mature (tertiary) follicle
What cells surround the primordial follicle?
Stromal cells
ID the follicles in A and B
A - primordial
B - Primary follicles
What cell type surrounds the unilaminar primary follicle? What initiates this change from the primordial follicle?
Cuboidal or columnar ovarian follicular cells.
Growth stimulated by FSH
What are the cells surrounding the primary oocyte in the multilaminar primary follicle?
membrana granulosa cells
T or F:
The zona pellucida develops at the secondary or antral follicular stage.
False! This develops at the multilaminar primary stage. The CORONA RADIATA develops at the antral stage.
T or F:
The oocyte and the granulosa cells secrete the zona pellucida.
False! Only the oocyte secretes this
ID these stages of follicular development
A - Multilaminar primary follicle
B - Unilaminar primary follicle
C - Primordial follicle
What two layers do the multilaminar primary follicle stromal cells differentiate into. Which produces androgens and what is the signal for androgen production?
Theca folliculi externa
Theca folliculi interna - produce androgens
What differentiates the multilaminar primary follicle from the antral (secondary) follicle?
Follicular antrum filled with liquor folliculi
What is the best part of follicular development?
CUMULUS OOPHORUS!!!
What secretes the liquor folliculi? What hormone is liquor folliculi high in?
Granulosa cells
Estrogen
ID these regions of the antral follicle
A - Theca folliculi
B - Cumulus oophorus
C - Membrana granulosa
D - Oocyte
E - Basement membrane
What are these?
A - Corona Radiata
B - Zona Pellucida
T or F:
Atresia may occur at any point in the developmental sequence.
True!
Where is the point of rupture from a follicle?
Follicular stigma
What structure forms after ovulation? How long does this structure last?
Corpus hemmorhagicum
<1day
What does the corpus hemmorhagicum eventually form?
Corpus luteum
Which cells proliferate/invade the corpus hemmorhagicum and what do they become?
Granulosa cells form granulosa lutein cells
Stromal cells become theca lutein cells
What hormones are secreted by the corpus luteum and which cells secrete them?
Progesterone - granulosa lutein cells and theca lutein cells
Androgens - theca lutein cells
What happens to the corpus luteum if fertilization does not occur? What happens if fertilization does occur?
degenerates and is replaced by corpus albicans
persists for a variable time during pregnancy
Which are the main hormones involved in the ovarian cycle?
FSH
LH
GnRH (releases both of these; indirect effect)
What is the effect of GnRH on the ovary? On the pituitary?
Ha ha fooled ya! GnRH ONLY acts on the pituitary! It triggers the basophils to release FSH and LH.
What is the function of FSH and LH on the ovary (both individually and combined)?
LH - follicle rupture, ovulation, development of corpora lutea and oocytes
FSH - growth and maturation of follicles and stimulates estrogen secretion
Both - regulate cyclical activity of ovary
What are the components of the oviduct?
Infundibulum
Ampulla
Isthmus
What are the functions of the uterine tube? Where does fertilization occur?
Fxn - transport of gametes, capacitation of sperm, and fertilization area (in ampulla)
Which structure of the oviduct is this?
Infundibulum
Where in the oviduct is this?
Isthmus
Where in the oviduct is this?
Ampulla
T or F:
There is no muscularis mucosa in the oviduct?
True!
What is the epithelium of the oviduct?
Simple/Pseudostratefied columnar epithelium with intermittent cilia.
What are some functions of the uterus?
Semen deposition
Spermatozoa transport
Development of embryo/fetus
What are the layers of the uterus?
Endometrium
Myometrium
Stratum vasculare
Perimetrium
Which region of the endometrium is devoid of glands? What is the function of this region?
Caruncles
Placental attachment
ID these layers of the uterus. What lies between B and C?
What structure is indicated by E?
A - Perimetrium
B - Myometrium (inner circular layer)
C - Myometrium (outer longitudinal layer)
Stratum vasculare between B and C
D - Endometrium
E - Caruncles
What distinguishes a bovid cervix from a carnivore cervix histologically?
Bovid cervix has complex folded cervical mucosa
What is the vaginal epithelium?
Stratefied squameous epithelium (nonglandular)
Classify A - D by stage of estrous.
A - Proestrous
B - Estrous
C - Mesestrous
D - Diestrous (anestrous)
T or F:
A bitch in heat has cornified stratefied squameous epithelium in her vagina.
True!
Which of these smears shows an anestrous bitch?
The one on the left.
What is unique about the epithelium of the duct in a teat?
Bistratefied columnar epithelium
What are the secretory components of milk? How is each component secreted?
Fat - apocrine
Protein and carbohydrates - merocrine
What is the gland morphology of mammary glands?
Compound tubuloalveolar glands
Describe the alveoli in a lactating mammary gland? In a non-lactating gland?
Lactating - distinct alveoli with blebs; interlobular ducts present, secretory product present
Non-lactating - no lobules, indistinct alveoli