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69 Cards in this Set

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What infectious diseases do you need to worry about with sheep?
Orf
Q-fever (Coxiella)
Salmonella
Crypto
Where does the abomasum lie in the living cow?
Fundus and body on ventral abdomen on midline and to the right.
Pylorus underlies 10th rib @ CCJ
Which of the following are NOT true regarding the abomasum?
a) the reticuloabomasal ligament attaches the abomasum cranially
b) The abomasum is attached firmly to the omasum
c) the greater omentum attaches to the greater curvature
d) ingesta remains in the abomasum for 10-20 minutes
e) the pylorus lies on midline
e) the pylorus lies on midline
What are the two prerequisites for abomasal displacements?
Atony and gas production
What is the ratio of LDA:RDA:Volvulus?
25:4:1
T or F:
It is impossible to have a LDA progress into a volvulus.
True!
Choose LDA, RDA, or volvulus...
...mild drop in milk.
LDA or RDA
Choose LDA, RDA, or volvulus...
...rapid dehydration and shock.
volvulus
Choose LDA, RDA, or volvulus...
...right paralumbar fossa omentopexy is the procedure of choice for treatment.
volvulus
Choose LDA, RDA, or volvulus...
...left paralumbar fossa abomasopexy treats it.
LDA
What metabolic changes accompany abomasal displacements?
Compensated metabolic alkalosis
Hypochloremia
Hypokalemia
Ketosis
Hypocalcemia
Dehydration and shock
What findings worsen the prognosis with abomasal displacements?
Tachycardia
Lots of abomasal fluid
Hypochloremia
High anion gap
Metabolic acidosis (lactic acidosis)
What are indications for a right paramedian abomasopexy? When is it contraindicated?
RDA, LDA, or RTA correction
Correction of ulcers
Contraindicated if postpartum edema is present
Why is the caudal abdomen explored first in a celiotomy?
Because peritonitis is usually cranial
How do you verify abomasal positioning in a right paralumbar omentopexy?
Exteriorize the pylorus and (1) follow duodenum distally from pylorus towards liver (2) greater curvature followed proximally to reticuloabomasal ligament (3) omasum dorsal to abomasum against right body wall
What are landmarks for the omentopexy in the right paralumbar omentopexy?
Omentum just caudal to the pylorus and 5 cm caudal to the proximal duodenum
In which approach must the abomasum be displaced at the time of surgery?
Left paralumbar fossa abomasopexy
What is the abomasopexy site in the left paralumbar fossa abomasopexy?
About 5cm lateral to greater omental attachment in the fundus
What are indications for percutaneous abomasopexy?
LDAs only!
What are medical treatments for displaced abomasa?
Ca/electrolyte/fluid therapy
Correct ketosis (Propylene glycol, glucose, steroids)
Treat mastitis, metritis, retained placentas
Where is the cecum normally located? Where is the junction between the cecum and ascending colon?
Supraomental recess
jxn is at the ileocecal jxn
What causes cecal dilation and volvulus?
Increased VFAs decrease cecal motility
Late gestation and ileus
If you find an innertube or a vienna loaf in the butt of a cow, what are you thinking?
Cecal dilation/volvulus of course!
What are colic signs in cattle?
treading, kick at abdomen
What approach is used for a typhlotomy?
Right paralumbar fossa celiotomy
What are indications for typhlectomy? Where is the cecum transected?
Recurrence of cecal rotation
Amputate cecal apex to ileocecal junction.
Where does intussusception commonly occur in adult cattle? In calves?
Adults - distal jejunum/ileum
Calves - throughout small intestine
What does raspberry jam feces usually indicate?
Intussusception!
Which chamber of the bovine stomach lies against the diaphragm?
Reticulum (@ 6th to 8th rib slightly to L of midline)
What are indications for rumen surgery?
Traumatic reticuloperitonitis
Vagal indigestion
Rumenal acidosis
Placement of a rumen fistula
Severe bloat
What approach is used for a rumenotomy?
Left paralumbar fossa celiotomy
What are the 3 blocks used for a left paralumbar fossa celiotomy? How do you know if the block worked?
Line block, inverted L, paravertebral;
Animal will bend away from block and skin gets warmer
T or F:
A rumenotomy is a contaminated surgery.
False!
It is clean-contaminated
Which muscle layers are incised in a paralumbar fossa celiotomy?
Cutaneous trunci (sheep)
External oblique
Internal oblique
Transversus abdominus + peritoneum
Which layers are incised in a right ventral paramedian celiotomy? Which is the holding layer?
Skin & subcut
External rectus sheath (holding layer)
Rectus abdominus m.
Internal rectus sheath
T or F:
During a rumenotomy, you do not lance abscesses that are not adhered to the reticular wall.
True!
When do you change gloves and gowns in a rumenotomy?
After rumen closure but before body wall closure.
What are landmarks for the left paralumbar fossa celiotomy in cattle?
8-10 cm ventral to transverse processes
2-3 cm caudal to 13th rib
T or F:
It is normal for air to rush out of the abdomen when entering the peritoneum.
False!
An INRUSH of air is normal!
Where are single hepatic abscesses normally found?
Left lobe of the liver
T or F:
A non-cutting needle is used to close the rumen.
False! Cutting needle!
What are the available approaches for c-section? Which are best for beef cattle? Which approach is common in standing animals?
Left/right paralumbar fossa (standing)
Midline (good for beef)
Paramedian (good for beef)
Ventrolateral
What should be done after removing a fetus and handing it off?
Check for another fetus!
Check uterus for tears!
Remove placenta ONLY if separated
How is the uterus closed?
2-layer inverting (Utrecht or Guards rumen)
When is the right paralumbar fossa approach used for a c-section?
Only when you're sure that the fetus is on the right!
When do most teat lacerations occur?
Within a month of calving
In housed cattle
How is anesthesia applied for teat laceration repair?
Ring block at base of teat
How is a teat laceration closed?
Mucosa (simple continuous w/4-0)
Muscular (interrupted or continuous 2-0)
Skin (interrupted, cruciate, vertical mattress 3-0 or 2-0)
Which of the following are common causes of teat obstructions?
a) spiders
b) snakes
c) bandicoots
d) Gandalf the Grey
a) spiders
What are some causes of teat obstructions?
Polyps (teat spiders)
Calculi (lactoliths)
Congenital atresia
Stenosis/fibrosis d/t trauma
What are two methods for treating teat obstructions?
Thelotomy
Via papillary duct
What provides blood to the teats and udder?
External pudendal (divides into cranial/caudal mammary branches)
Some perineal arteries
What drains the teats/udders in calves? In adults?
Calves (pudendal vein)
Adults (subcutaneous abdominal veins become the milk veins)
Which nerves supply the teats and udder?
1st through 4th lumbar nerve roots and mammary rami of pudendal n.
What is the most common congenital abnormality of the bovine mammary system?
Supernumerary teats
Which of the following are signs of a horse with GI disease?
a) signs of colic
b) absence of GI sounds
c) nasogastric reflux
d) abdominal distention
e) lack of fecal passage
a) signs of colic
b) absence of GI sounds
c) nasogastric reflux
d) abdominal distention
(feces should be present or maybe diarrhea, if no feces = BAD NEWS)
What tests should be done on colicing horses?
NG tube
Rectal exam
Peritoneal fluid analysis
PCV/TP (maybe CBC/Chem)
Ultrasound
What approach should be used for surgical treatment of equine colic? Which organ should be seen first?
Ventral midline
See cecum first
What is the most common site for equine enterotomy? Which site has the most bacteria?
Pelvic flexure
Small colon has most bacteria
How are equine enterotomies closed?
Appositional for mucosa or full thickness
Inverting for seromuscular/submucosa
Which type of anastamosis may cause intussusception?
End to side
What angle should be made for an intestinal anastomosis? Which side is longer?
Between 46 and 60 degrees
Longer MESENTERIC side
How is an equine ventral midline celiotomy closed?
3 layers (linea alba, subcut, skin)
How long can a nasogastric tube be left in a horse?
24 hrs
T or F:
Horses normally continue to show colic signs after colic surgery.
False!
What are some post surgical motility modulators used in equine colic?
Ca, K, Metaclopramide, Lidocaine, Erythromycin, Neostigmine (large colon only)
What may prevent adhesions in equine surgery?
Heparin
What are indications for surgery in pelvic flexure impaction?
Intractable pain
Distention
Changes w/peritoneal fluid
(most all resolve w/medical management)
What is the most common site of large colon volvulus? Intussusception?
Cecocolic junction for both!