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75 Cards in this Set

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What is the common signalment for equine OCD?
young fast growing horses (warmblods, QH, standardbred, THB, belgians)
Show signs 6mos to 2 yrs
The 4 main sites of OCD in the horse hock are...
DIRT
Larteral trochlear ridge of talus
Medial malleolus of tibia
Medial trochlear ridge of talus
What is the #1 OCD lesion in the horse stifle? Hock? Which is #1 overall?
Lateral Trochlear Ridge of Distal Femur in stifle
DIRT (distal intermediate ridge of tibia) in hock is #1 overall
The 4 main sites of OCD in the horse stifle are...
Lateral trochlear ridge of distal femur
Patella
Medial femoral condyle (cyst)
Medial trochlear ridge of femur
What are some nutritional factors that possibly contribute to OCD?
High glucose and insulin
Low Cu
High P, Zn, or Mo
What is the MOST IMPORTANT factor contributing to OC development?
RAPID GROWTH RATE
Describe the changes in collagen in OC cartilage.
Changes in types I, II, VI, and X
Increased col I and decreased col II
What are some medical treatments for OC?
decrease nutritional plane (eliminate grain and alfalfa)
Decrease exercise
Hyaluronic acid joint injections
Which joints have the worst prognosis for moderate to severe OC?
Stifle and shoulder
What are the 3 types of growth plates and where are they found?
Discoid (long bone ends)
Spherical (cuboidal bones)
Traction epiphysis (where muscle attaches)
Which histologic zone of the growth plate is most susceptible to injury?
hypertrophic zone
When do the following growth plates close?
tibial physis
proximal P1
distal radial physis
distal MC3/MT3
tibial physis - 8 mos
proximal P1 - 4 mos
distal radial physis - 12 mos
distal MC3/MT3 - 4 mos
A "windswept" foal often has carpal __________ on one leg and carpal _________on the other.
valgus on one; varus on the other (d/t intrauterine positioning)
When viewing joint radiographs for angular deformities, joint spaces should be ____________ in normal animals while long axes should be _______________.
Both should should be PARALLEL (but perpendicular to one another)
T or F:
Where the skewed lines of joint spaces cross indicates where the developmental abnormality lies.
False!
This describes where the long bone axes cross!
Which of the following are appropriate treatments for angular deformities due to incomplete ossification?
a) stall rest
b) corrective trimming/shoeing
c) growth acceleration
d) external coaptation
e) transphyseal bridging
a) stall rest
d) external coaptation
Which of the following are NOT appropriate treatments for angular deformities due to developmental abnormalities?
a) stall rest
b) corrective trimming/shoeing
c) growth acceleration
d) external coaptation
e) transphyseal bridging
a) stall rest (should have controlled exercise)
d) external coaptation (should use various forms of implants)
Which are true regarding periosteal stripping?
a) perform on the concave aspect of the limb
b) perform at the level of the growth plate
c) perform on the convex aspect of the limb
d) perform above growth plate
e) tip $5 and wash the glitter off before going home
a) perform on the concave aspect of the limb
d) perform above growth plate
Periosteal stripping should be performed __________ rapid growth ends while transphyseal bridging should be performed _________ rapid growth ends.
Stripping before
Bridging after
Which are true regarding transphyseal bridging?
a) performed on the concave limb aspect
b) performed on the convex limb aspect
c) possibility for overcorrection
d) performed above the growth plate
e) releases growth inhibition
b) performed on the convex limb aspect
c) possibility for overcorrection
T or F:
Septic physitis is not very common in horses.
True! Physitis is generally aseptic.
What are common sites for equine physitis?
Distal radial physis
Distal MC/MT 3 physis
Distal tibial physis
Proximal tibial physis
How can non-septic physitis be treated?
NSAIDS
Decrease nutrition and exercise
Common sites for tendon laxity in horses include...
...fetlock
carpus
hock
Name the joint and tendon involved in...
...coffin joint flexure
Distal interphalangeal joint d/t
"contracted" DDF
Name the joint and tendon involved in...
...fetlock flexure
Metacarpo/tarso-phalangeal joint d/t contracted superficial +/- DDF tendon
Name the joint and tendon involved in...
...carpal flexure
carpal joint!
contracted carpal ligaments
What joint is affected with when the dorsal hoof wall is very steep?
distal interphalangeal (coffin) joint
What joint is affected when pasterns are upright and fetlock is knuckling forward?
Metacarpophalangeal joint
What are some signs of ruptured common digital extensor tendon?
Swelling in tendon sheath (dorsolateral carpus)
Fetlock knuckling over
Flip feet as walk
Palpate ends of tendon
How are congenital tendon flexures treated medically?
Oxytetracycline injection (chelates Ca and relaxes muscle)
Reduce nutritional plane
Splints/casts
Trimming/shoeing
Distal check ligament desmotomy is appropriate for which of the following?
a) Club foot
b) Fetlock flexure
c) coffin joint flexure
d) ruptured DDF
a) Club foot
c) coffin joint flexure
(this involves DDF tendon; it may help fetlock flexure but I don't really know!)
What is the most important post-op measure after a distal check ligament desmotomy?
corrective shoeing and trimming to prevent ligament reforming
Proximal check ligament desmotomies are good for flexural deformities involving the ___________ tendon.
SDF (fetlock flexure)
Seroma formation is more common with ___________ check ligament desmotomy.
Proximal
Where are most lamenesses in food animals?
Foot (80-90% below fetlock);
Lateral claw on back; medial claw on front
Economic losses from food animal lameness is pretty much equal to losses from __________.
mastitis
What are some infectious causes of food animal lameness and which are reportable?
FMD, Bluetongue, MCF, VS (reportable);
Also BVD, salomonellosis
In general, what is the treatment for most all bovine lameness issues?
Trim all 4 claws correctly
Soft bedding
Improve hygiene
A circular area of hemorrhage and necrosis in the sole-bulb junction describes...
...Sole ulcer (Rusterholz ulcer or pododermatitis circumscripta)
You see a cow with swollen deep interdigital areas and a fever. What is the condition, etiology, and drug treatment?
Intergital phlegmone (necrobacillosis)
d/t Fusobacterium necrophorum
Tx - Penicillin!
T or F:
Tetracycline is generally good for treatment of infection by anaerobes.
False!
PENICILLIN is good for anaerobes (except for Bacteriodes spp).
Tetracycline is good for spirochetes, among others...
A cow with swollen interdigital epidermis and no fever probably has...
Interdigital dermatitis d/t Dichelobacter nodosa
You see a strawberry to wart-like lesion above the coronary band and interdigital space in a cow. What is the condition, etiology, and drug treatment?
Digital dermatitis
d/t spirochete
Tx - tetracycline
Describe a POOR candidate for digit amputation in large animals.
>1500 lbs
Lateral hind claw affected
Medial front claw affected
Digital amputation would be a great choice in which of the following:
a) P3 fractures
b) lateral hind claw in breeding bull <1500 lbs
c) sole ulcer of medial hind claw
d) septic arthritis
e) pedal osteitis
a) P3 fractures
d) septic arthritis
e) pedal osteitis
What are some advantages to arthrodesis over digit amputation?
Longer production life
Better for heavy animals
Better for lateral hind/medial front claws
Better cosmetic outcome
What is the best diagnostic procedure for septic arthritis in food animals?
Synoviocentesis
Choose the Salter-Harris classification involving...
...complete physis separation.
Type I
Choose the Salter-Harris classification involving...
...a physeal fracture that also involves the metaphysis.
Type II
Choose the Salter-Harris classification involving...
...intra-articular fracture through physis and epiphysis.
Type III
Choose the Salter-Harris classification involving...
...intra-articular fracture through epiphysis, physis, and metaphysis.
Type IV
Choose the Salter-Harris classification involving...
...crushing injury leading to physis.
Type V or VI
What type of coxofemoral luxation is most common in cattle? How can you tell if luxation has occurred?
Craniodorsal most common
Look at greater trochanter, tuber ischi, and tuber coxa to diagnose
Which are true regarding Elso Heel?
a) involves shortened peroneus tertius
b) an acquired nuromuscular disorder of polled english breeds
c) progressive hock extension
d) treated by tenotomy
c) progressive hock extension
d) treated by tenotomy
(involves shortened GASTROCNEMIUS in HOLSTEIN FRIESLANDS)
In bone sequestration, the ____________ lies inside the ___________.
Sequestrum inside the involucrum
What is the fancy name for "big knee" in cattle? What is the etiology? What is the treatment?
Hygroma
d/t chronic trauma (laying on hard ground)
Tx - sterile drainage
Which are NOT true regarding femoral neuropathy/patellar luxations in cattle?
a) treated by lateral patellar imbrications
b) involves quadriceps atrophy
c) usually medial patellar luxation
d) often d/t birthing grauma
a) treated by MEDIAL patellar imbrications
c) usually LATERAL patellar luxation
Osteochondrosis in food animals is most common in which joint?
Tibiotarsal joint
If an animal can extend the hock and flex the stifle, what gives?
RUPTURED PERONEUS TERTIUS
Which are true regarding joint physiology?
a) collagen type II provides tensile strength
b) proteoglycans provide compressive strength
c) collagen type II provides tensile and compressive strength
d) proteoglycans provide tensile strength
e) none of the above
a) collagen type II provides tensile strength
b) proteoglycans provide compressive strength
What are the two major categories leading to OA?
Normal cartilage/abnormal stress
Abnormal cartilage/normal stress
Which are true regarding the pathology of OA?
a) the major pro-inflammatory cytokines are MMPs
b) aggregates degrade proteoglycans and collagen
c) MMPs break down proteoglycans and collagen
d) IL-1 is released by synoviocytes and chondrocytes
c) MMPs break down proteoglycans and collagen
d) IL-1 is released by synoviocytes and chondrocytes
(aggregans only break down proteoglycans; IL-1 is major cytokine)
Which tissues are affected by osteoarthritis/DJD and what effect is there on each tissue?
Articular cartilage (degeneration)
Subchondral bone (sclerosis; lysis)
Joint capsule (fibrosis)
Synovial membrane (hyperplasia, hyperemia, increased fluid production)
Which tissues elicit pain in OA/DJD?
synovial membrane
Joint capsule
subchondral bone
T or F:
Surgery of OA/DJD is indicated to slow or halt disease progression.
False!
Only indicated when there is a MECHANICAL reason for continued inflammation
What does SMOAD and DMOAD stand for?
Symptom-Modifying and Disease-Modifying OA Drugs
Which of the following are true regarding OA medical treatment?
a) improved pain slows cartilage degeneration
b) reducing cartilage degeneration alleviates pain
c) Most NSAIDS are SMOAD and DMOADs
d) Hyaluronin is not a SMOAD
d) Hyaluronin is not a SMOAD
(note - reduced pain DOES NOT equal reduced cartilage degeneration and vice versa! Also most NSAIDS are only SMOADs)
Which NSAID is a SMOAD and DMOAD? What else is cool with this drug?
Diclofenac; is TOPICAL, has minimal systemic absorption (lower GI side effects), and decreases dejenerative effects more
NSAIDS inhibit _________ while corticosteroids inhibit _____________.
NSAIDS (COX blockers)
Steroids (COX blockers and Phospholipase A2)
What is important to remember AFTER giving an intra-articular corticosteroid injection?
Let animal rest 7-10 days to give chondrocytes time to recover from anaerobic metabolism.
What are the main actions of hyaluronan?
anti-inflammatory
decrease proteoglycans
What are the major effects of hyaluronin injection?
Anti-inflammatory and decreases prostaglandins (DMOAD)
Which inflammatory mediators do polysulfated polysaccharides impact?
IL-1, PPM2, PGE2
"Slow-acting" DMOADS comprise the ___________________.
Polysulfated polysaccharides