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56 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Where do urinary calculi normally lodge in ruminants?
sigmoid flexure
distal penile urethra
urethral process
Which stone type carries the best prognosis in ruminants?
a) struvite
b) calcium carbonate
c) silicate
d) oxalate
a) struvite
Which stone type is associated with alfalfa ingestion in ruminants?
a) struvite
b) calcium carbonate
c) silicate
d) oxalate
a) struvite
The major sign of urolithiasis is...
...straining to urinate
How can bladder rupture be assessed via chemistry?
Creatinine in cystocentesis is 2x or more than creatinine in serum
How can urine be acidified in ruminants? Which stone type will this not help?
Ammonium chloride
Calcium carbonate and silicate don't dissolve in acid solutions
What procedure is the treatment of choice for breeding bulls with urolithiasis?
tube cystostomy
What are major indications for bladder marsupialization over other surgical techniques?
Financial resources
Owner doesn't mind animal smelling like grandpa's pee bag
Which technique removes stones from the urethra?
a) urethrostomy
b) bladder marsupialization
c) tube cystostomy
d) penile amputation
e) urethral process amputation
a) urethrostomy
(although I guess the amputations also remove the stone from the urethra - and the urethra too!)
Which breeds are predisposed to preputial prolapse/laceration and why?
Polled English (Angus, Hereford, Shorthorn; d/t lack of retractur preputii)
Bos indicus spp. (d/t pendulous prepuce)
What is important to remember when treating preputial abscesses?
drain the sucker into the preputial cavity to prevent adhesions!
Which animals are predisposed to penile hematomas? Where do they often occur?
Aggressive breeding bulls;
Occur at distal end of sigmoid flexure (cranial to scrotum) opposite retractor penis m.
Preputial hematomas > ______ cm should be treated surgically unless > ______ days old. What is the prognosis of surgery in these cases?
>15 cm long; >14 days old; 80% return to breeding
Persistent frenulum is common in which large animals?
Shorthorn, Angus, Boars
What are two complications to an open castration in horses?
When are horses commonly castrated?
Ascending infeciton
Hydrocele
(castrated 1-2 yrs)
T or F:
In cases of omental evisceration in foals, the tissue is simply ligated and excised.
True!
NAME THAT EMASCULATOR!
A - White
B - Reimer
C - Serra
D - Newberry Castrating Knife
The round ligaments of the bladder come from ______________ while the round ligament of the liver comes from __________.
bladder --> umbilical arteries
liver --> umbilical vein
Where does the urachus communicate with the fetal bladder?
a) trigone
b) urethra
c) ureter
d) apex
d) apex
(connects bladder apex to allantoic sac in fetus)
Define hernia:
defect in body wall resulting in protrusion of the organs of that body cavity
Choose complicated or uncomplicated hernia...
...often see systemic signs.
Complicated
Choose all that are UNtrue regarding umbilical hernias:
a) usually develop by day 4
b) females and thorobreds may be more affected
c) the more contents in the hernia, the larger the hernia
d) often contain small intestines and omentum
a) usually CLOSE by day 4 (they may develop 5-8 wks though)
c) the more contents in the hernia, the larger the hernia (hernias are classified by their body wall defect)
Choose complicated or uncomplicated hernia...
...irreducible without systemic signs.
Still COMPLICATED!
Which of the following should always be done when a complicated hernia is suspected?
a) ultrasound
b) palpation
c) fine needle aspirate
d) radiography
e) abdominocentesis
a) ultrasound
b) palpation
Which of the following are NOT indications for surgical intervention for a hernia?
a) hernia ring 3-7cm
b) signs of concurrent abscessation
c) 2 month old foal with 5cm uncomplicated hernia
d) signs of incarceration
e) no resolution with medical management after 4-5mos
a) hernia 3-7cm (NO - uncomplicated hernias <10cm are medically managed)
c) 2 month old foal with 5cm uncomplicated hernia (nope, try medical management then surgery after 4-5 mos)
Inflammation of the umbilicus is __________, the umbilical vein is ___________, and the umbilical arteries is _____________.
Omphalitis
Omphalophlebitis
Omphaloarteritis
In a newborn foal, how large should the umbilical vein and artery be via ultrasound? How about the artery/vein/urachus together?
artery & vein both <10mm
all three <24mm
In a foal >10d old, how large should the umbilical vein and artery be via ultrasound? How about the artery/vein/urachus together?
artery & vein both <5mm
all three <24mm
Which foals have a higher incidence of patent urachus?
SEPTIC FOALS
Which ruminants are predisposed to umbilical hernias?
female holsteins
T or F:
Ruminant umbilical hernias are more often infected than equines.
True
What is the most common isolate from ruminant umbilical infections?
Arcanobacter pyogenes
Which of the following are NOT complications of umbilical hernia surgery?
a) septic arthritis
b) adhesions
c) evisceration
d) peritonitis
e) hernia
c) evisceration (she technically didn't list this but I'll bet it could happen anyhow)
T or F:
Ruptured vaginal tunic is involved in most equine inguinal hernias.
False! Most are WITHIN the vaginal tunic
Which breeds might you want to castrate standing and why?
Standardbreds, Belgian Draft, Donkeys, Mules (predisposed to inguinal hernias)
How can herniated intestine be safely reduced in an inguinal hernia?
"twist and tack" method
T or F:
Acquired inguinal hernias are emergency surgeries!
TRUE; they commonly have incarcerated bowel!
What is the most common penile neoplasm in the horse?
SCC
also melanomas on grey horses
Which of the following are good treatments for proliferative penile tumors?
a) 5-FU
b) cisplatin injection
c) cryosurgery
d) circumcision
e) penile amputation
b) cisplatin injection (add sesame oil of all things)
e) penile amputation
Which aspect of the bladder is usually ruptured in foals? What are some concurrent chem abnormalities?
Dorsal aspect of bladder; will see azotemia, hyperkalemia, hyponatremia, hypochloremia
What is the most common cause of urolithiasis in horses? What is the method of choice for removing large calculi?
Type 1 calcium carbonate; removed by laprocystotomy
What are common signs of urolithiasis in horses?
Hematuria, straining to urinate
frequent urination
weight loss
colic
What layers are incised in the stab incision for abdominocentesis? What layers are perforated in the "2 pops"?
Stab through skin and external rectus sheath
Pop through internal rectus sheath and peritoneum
Normal abdominal fluid is straw-colored and..
a) <1500 cells/uL
b) <5000 cells/uL
c) <2.5g/dL protein
d) >20% mononuclear cells
b) <5000 cells/uL (up to 10000)
c) <2.5g/dL protein
d) >20% mononuclear cells
What is the normal neutrophil:mononuclear cell ratio for normal abdominal fluid?
8:2 (neuts/monos)
Abdominal fluid from a strangulating lesion would have...
a) >80% neutrophils
b) >2.5g/dL protein
c) orange to red color
d) >50K cells/uL
e) all of the above
b) >2.5g/dL protein
c) orange to red color
(the other two describe septic peritonitis)
Where is the opening to the nasolacrimal duct located?
caudal aspect of mucocutaneous junction in the nostril
What are two main indications for nasogastric tubing in the horse?
Colics (check for reflux)
Choke (check for and/or relieve obstruction)
What type of ET tube is used for horses?
Cole tube
Why should you have large animals swallow as the ET tube is removed?
Corrects any epiglottal displacements
Which of the following arteries are good sites for pulse palpation in ponies?
a) facial
b) transverse facial
c) common digital
d) saphenous
e) radial
a) facial
b) transverse facial
e) radial
(also dorsal metatarsal, digital, and caudal auricular)
Which of the following arteries are good sites for pulse palpation in sheep?
a) facial
b) transverse facial
c) common digital
d) saphenous
e) radial
c) common digital
d) saphenous
e) radial
(also caudal auricular)
What are 2 good sites for direct BP in ponies? Sheep?
Ponies (facial & dorsal metatarsal)
Sheep (radial & common digital)
What does nystagmus mean in an anesthetized horse?
Getting too light! Turn it up, man!
When using a mechanical ventilator, inspiratory pressures should not exceed ____________ cm water.
<40 cm water (usually <30)
If you increase minute volume 2x and rate 2x on a mechanical ventilator...
a) this has no effect on tidal volume
b) this increases tidal volume 4x
c) this increases tidal volume 8x
d) this increases tidal volume 2x
a) this has no effect on tidal volume