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115 Cards in this Set

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Which is most likely to lead to decreases in ATP in the brain?
a) reduced stored glycogen
b) reduced thiamine
c) reduced insulin
d) reduced electron transport activity
d) reduced electron transport activity
What are the two main sources of glycolysis in the brain? What is the end result of these?
Embden Meyerhoff Pathway (most)
Hexose monophosphate pathway
(end result = PYRUVATE)
What is the source of thiamin in ruminants? Neonates?
Ruminants (rumen microbes)
Neonates (milk)
Which of the following are NOT true regarding polioencephalomalacia genesis?
a) Type I bacterial thiaminases must have cofactors
b) Can be caused by lack of thiamine or lack of glucose
c) type II thiaminases such as bracken fern need no cofactors
d) high S, P, or Pb
e) rumen microbe die-off
c) type II thiaminases such as bracken fern (NO; type II thiaminases are BACTERIAL but require no cofactor)
d) high S, P, or Pb (NO; high S or Pb but LOW P)
T or F:
All things that reduce thiamine have been linked to polioencephalomalacia.
True!
T or F:
All polioencephalomalacia involves thiamine derangements.
False!
Which of the following cause PEM due to hypoglycemia?
a) amprolium
b) bracken fern
c) molasses/urea diet
d) Sulfur
c) molasses/urea diet
What is the biochemical endpoint of PEM? What is the pathological endpoint?
Biochem (lack of ATP)
Pathology (no Na/K ATP-ase leads to cerebral edema)
What are the common PEM risk factors in feedlots?
High energy diet
Rumenal organism die-off
Benzimidazole administration
Amprolium
(benzimidazoles are cofactors for type I thiaminases)
What is an EARLY clinical sign of PEM in cattle?
Cortical blindness! (normal PLR but can't see)
How does CSF look in a cow w/PEM?
vacuolated mononuclear cells and protein
All neurologic ruminants should be treated with ___________.
THIAMINE
How can you test for lead poisoning?
Run Pb in WHOLE BLOOD (Pb binds to RBC proteins)
Which of the following does lead toxicosis NOT do?
a) inhibits Na/K pump
b) causes oxidative damage
c) neuronal swelling and necrosis
d) microhepatopathy
e) Gi signs
b) causes oxidative damage (nope)
d) microhepatopathy (microANGIOpathy)
What signs can help distinguish lead poisoning from a thiamine issue?
GI signs (teeth grinding, colic, bloat)
Radiographic signs (Pb lines and foreign body)
What are some tests to determine if an animal has lead poisoning?
Radiographs (FB or Pb lines)
CSF tap (foamy mononuclear cells - indicative of PEM)
Whole blood lead
Delta aminolevulinic acid dehydratase is HIGH
What causes thromboembolic meningoencephalitis?
Haemophilus somnus
Which of the following are NOT true regarding bovine PEM?
a) often occurs in outbreaks
b) brain will fluoresce with woods lamp
c) no changes in CSF
d) change in water can be a factor
e) weakness and cervical ventriflexion are signs
c) no changes in CSF (NO; increased protein and mononuclear cells)
e) weakness and cervical ventriflexion are signs (NO; depression, blindness, to opisthotonos)
What are some non-neurological signs associated with thromboembolic meningoencephalitis?
Respiratory disease
Lameness/swollen joints
Maybe pericarditis/peritonitis
What organism causes sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis?
Chlamydophilum pecorum
Which of the following are NOT associated with sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis?
a) zoonoses
b) opisthotonous
c) organisms in CSF
d) no fever
e) koalas
b) opisthotonous (Not really; more general neck pain)
c) organisms in CSF (No, organisms in WBCs)
d) no fever (Nope!)
What are common causes of meningitis in calves? In adults? How is this treated?
Calves (E. coli and Salmonella)
Adults (A. pyogenes)
Tx - oxytet
Which of the following are NOT associated with pseudorabies?
a) no aerosol transmission
b) raccoons, pigs, and rats are reservoirs
c) can be caused by attenuated vaccines
d) associated w/severe prurutis
e) perivascular neutrophilic cuffing
a) no aerosol transmission (NO; inhalation and contact are most likely transmission)
e) perivascular neutrophilic cuffing (NO; perivascular mononuclear cuffing)
What are good differentials for pseudorabies infection?
Nervous ketosis
Rabies
Locoism
MCF
IBR
T or F:
Pruritis in pseudorabies is associated with respiratory infection.
False! Intradermal!
What is a major source of listeriosis in cattle? In goats?
Cattle (spoiled silage)
Goats (rotting vegetation)
What is the characteristic histopathologic CNS lesion in listeriosis?
Microabscesses with mononuclear perivascular cuffing
T or F:
The focal CNS form of listeriosis is unique to ruminants.
True!
Which of the following are associated with listeriosis in ruminants?
a) bilateral facial nerve paralysis
b) fever
c) difficult to culture
d) largely neutrophilic inflammation
e) mammary gland infection
b) fever
c) difficult to culture
e) mammary gland infection
(note - usually unilateral cranial nerve involvement and MONONUCLEAR inflammation)
You see a cow with bradycardia. What CNS issue should be on your differentials list?
Brain abscess compressing the hypothalamus
Which bacteria cause brain abscesses in cattle and how do they get there?
A. pyogenes, F. necrophorum, Strepts, etc
Hematogenous spread
You see a calf with a head tilt. What is the likely etiology?
Mycoplasma otitis
What causes locoism?
Astragalus or Oxytropis toxicosis
Which of the following are NOT sequels to locoism?
a) Pb toxicosis
b) Vacuolar degeneration in WBCs
c) Vacuolar degeneration in the brain
d) microabscesses
e) inhibition of alpha mannosidase
a) Pb toxicosis (NO; Se toxicosis)
d) microabscesses (NO; vacuolar degeneration)
How is locoism diagnosed? Treated?
Dx (history, may see WBC vacuolation; necropsy diagnosis)
Tx (none; remove from locoweed)
Which of the following are NOT associated with hydrocephalus?
a) outbreaks
b) herefords and holsteins
c) plugged foramen of monro
d) blue tongue
e) BVD
a) outbreaks (NO)
d) blue tongue
e) BVD
(these latter 2 are associated with hydrancephaly)
Which of the following are true regarding viral disease and hydrancephaly?
a) Bluetongue infection prior to 80days
b) BVD infection at around 100 days will cause persistent infection + anencephaly
c) arthrogryposis is associated with BVD
d) Ear notch or whole blood titers can be used for PI BVD
e) BVD infection @ 150d will cause anencephaly but not PI
a) Bluetongue infection prior to 80days (NO; bluetongue ~125 d)
c) arthrogryposis is associated with BVD (NO; Bluetongue)
d) Ear notch or whole blood titers can be used for PI BVD (NO; this is IHC not titers)
and PI
What is the probably cause of nervous coccidiosis?
a) Eimeria
b) Cryptosporidium
c) Amprolium
d) Eimeria toxin
e) Fluid shifts
c) Amprolium is the most probable cause although it is unknown
Which of the following are NOT true regarding neosporosis?
a) Spread by opossums
b) Can be diagnosed by serology of dam
c) fecal-oral transmission causes CNS signs
d) CNS form often localizes to the cerebellum
e) Ataxia, obtundation, tremors and weakness are common signs
a) Spread by opossums (NO; dogs usually)
c) fecal-oral transmission causes CNS signs (NO; vertical transmission)
d) CNS form often localizes to the cerebellum (NO; cerebrum)
You see a calf with opisthotonous, cortical blindness, and hematuria. What gives?
Water intoxication/Salt poisoning
How is water intoxication or salt poisoning diagnosed?
a) High Na in blood
b) High Cl in blood
c) High Na in CSF
d) hematuria
e) hemoglobinuria
c) High Na in CSF (relative to plasma)
e) hemoglobinuria
How is salt poisoning treated?
SLOW administration of fluids (don't change Na more than 1 mEq/hr)
You see a young Holstein with slowly progressive ataxia, hypermetria, and base-wide stance that also has diarrhea. What do you think?
Alpha mannosidase deficiency
You are screening for alpha mannosidase deficiency. What does the following mean?
a) 0% activity
b) 40-60% activity
c) 100% activity
What must you ensure when taking the sample?
a) 0% activity - affected
b) 40-60% activity - carrier
c) 100% activity - non-carrier
(ensure NON-HEMOLYZED sample)
Who gets gets mannosidosis?
Salers and anglo-nubian goat
Which of the following are NOT associated with vitamin A deficiency?
a) bony malformations of the skull
b) angus breed
c) causes hydranencephaly
d) cortical blindness
e) treat with vitamin A
b) angus breed (NO; feedlot animals)
c) causes hydranencephaly (NO; hydrocephalus when advanced)
d) cortical blindness (NO; peripheral blindness too)
When I say Salers, you say -
- Beta mannosidosis!
I say holstein, you say -
- Neuraxial edema
- Hydrocephalus
- Alpha mannosidase deficiency
- Elso heel
When I say Angus, you say -
- congenital cerebellar hypoplasia
-Elso Heel
- alpha mannosidosis
When I say hereford, you say -
- Maple Syrup Urine
- Neuraxial Edema
- Hydrocephalus
- SMA (high-grade weaves)
What causes vitamin A deficient feed?
Heat damage to the feed
What are the 3 major signs of cerebellar lesions?
Hypermetria
Base-wide stance
Intention tremors
What is a viral cause of cerebellar lesions in cattle?
BVD!
What is the cause of maple syrup urine? What are signs of it?
Failure to break down branched-chain ketoacids
(tetanic/clonic response when overstimulated + hyperthermia)
What are 2 syndromes that look normal but get all spazzy when overstimulated?
Maple Syrup Urine
Neuraxial Edema
What is the major cause of enterotoxemia with CNS disease? Which animal does it mostly affect?
Clostridium perfringens type D (epsilon toxin)
Affects SHEEP!
Which of the following are NOT associated with CNS disease due to enterotoxemia?
a) mostly in sheep
b) delta toxin
c) bilateral effect on cranial nerves
d) mononuclear CNS infiltrate
e) vaccination does not prevent it
b) delta toxin (NO; epsilon toxin)
d) mononuclear CNS infiltrate (NO; CNS and CBC are NORMAL)
Which sheep breeds are most susceptible to scrapie?
Cheviot and Suffolk
Which of the following are suspected transmission routes for scrapie?
a) soil
b) biting insects
c) placenta and reproductive secretions
d) airborne
a) soil
b) biting insects
c) placenta and reproductive secretions
What causes scrapie? How is it killed?
A virino (or maybe a prion); resistant to EVERYTHING except long-term cooking or NaOH or Bleach
Which of the following are NOT true regarding scrapie?
a) pruritis occurs with cutaneous transmission
b) a disease of adult sheep
c) only affects sheep
d) ante-mortem test available
e) sheep shipped to Australia must be heterozygotic for codons 136 and 171.
a) pruritis occurs with cutaneous transmission (NO; ingestion is the only route)
c) only affects sheep (NO; also mouflon and goats)
e) sheep shipped to Australia must be heterozygotic for codons 136 and 171 (NO; this would be resistant! You want them susceptible!)
What is the "scrapie sign"?
Flemen
What tissue is biopsied for scrapie testing?
Tonsil or 3rd eyelid
Who gets BSE?
Bovids, Man, cats
What is the initial sign of BSE in dairy cows?
Reluctance when milking
T or F:
Zoonotic variants of BSE in man are always slowly progressive.
False!
There is a rapidly-progressive Variant Creuzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD)
Which of the following describe BSE transmission?
a) Horizontal
b) Vertical
c) Oral
d) Airborne (inhaled)
c) Oral
d) Airborne (inhaled) - a possible route
What is the cause of swayback and enzootic ataxia? When is the onset?
Cu deficiency
Swayback (newborns)
Enzootic (1-3 mos)
Who gets border disease?
Sheep and goats
If you see a shaking lamb with long coarse hairs, what is the disease pathogenesis?
Border disease infection before 90d gestation
How is border disease diagnosed?
Serology for non-PI
VI for PI
(usually IFA on skin + VI on blood)
What is the histologic lesion in Cu deficiency?
Demyelination and cavitation in the white matter of brainstem/spinal cord
Which of the following are NOT associated with Cu deficiency?
a) long guard hairs
b) Hyperthermia
c) Enzootic ataxia
d) Swayback
e) freak-out when overstimulated
a) long guard hairs (NO; crimpless wool)
b) Hyperthermia (NO; this is maple syrup urine)
e) freak-out when overstimulated (NO; they have progressive ataxia to stupor/coma)
Choose true gid or false gid for the following:
- Taenia multiceps
- usually in dorsal turbinate
- de-worm your farm dogs
- sneezing & face rubbing
True - Taenia multiceps
False - usually in dorsal turbinate
True - de-worm your farm dogs
False - sneezing & face rubbing
Choose true gid or false gid for the following:
- Unilateral cerebral signs
- Oestrus ovis
- Soft spot in the head
- secondary bacterial meningoencaphalitis
- blindness
True - Unilateral cerebral signs
False - Oestrus ovis
True - Soft spot in the head
False - secondary bacterial meningoencaphalitis
BOTH - blindness
How do you pronounce louping ill?
LOPE-ING ill
Which of the following are NOT true regarding louping ill?
a) zoonotic arbovirus
b) not in the US
c) outbreaks are rare
d) PCR can only be performed during viremia
e) no fever
c) outbreaks are rare (NO; usually occurs in outbreaks)
e) no fever (Fever during viremia)
What is the most common sign of OPP?
Respiratory issues (pneumonia); neuro dz is rare
Who gets Parelaphostrongylus tenis?
White-tailed deer (normal); other ruminants, cervids, camelids, horses
Which of the following are NOT true regarding Parelaphostrongylus meningitis?
a) Lives in the epidural space
b) eosinophilic CSF
c) signs are most often spinal
d) no seasonality
e) eggs are associated with mollusks
a) Lives in the epidural space (ARACHNOID)
d) no seasonality (FALL & SPRING)
e) eggs are associated with mollusks (LARVAE)
How are brain worms treated? Prevented?
Fenbendizole + steroids (tx)
Ivermectin/benzimidazole deworming + mollusk control
If you see a cow standing with its front legs crossed, what do you think?
Medial claw lameness on front
Which of the following are NOT true regarding bovine lameness?
a) #1 disease in bovine medicine
b) more common in hind limb, medial claw
c) most lamenesses involve the horn and soft tissue
d) front limb lamenesses are on medial claw
b) more common in hind limb, medial claw (LATERAL)
If you see a skin lesion on the abaxial surface of the foot, what should you be thinking?
Joint infection
T or F:
Synovial spaces are most vulnerable near the rear of the foot, where the joint capsule protrudes.
False! The FRONT of the foot!
How fast does hoof horn grow?
0.5cm/month
Which of the following are NOT true regarding bovine foot anatomy?
a) front feet are bigger than rear
b) sole is softer than heel
c) perioplic corium creates the hoof wall
d) the weight bearing region is the abaxial edges of the claw
e) abrasiveness and load affect hoof growth rates
b) sole is softer than heel (HEEL SOFTER)
c) perioplic corium creates the hoof wall (NO; it creates the heel; coronary corium creates the wall)
What will cause a cow to get splay-toed (Spock hands) in the rear?
Mechanical/concussive trauma in rear hooves; causes growth in heel, toe, abaxial wall
What are the major factors in bovine foot lesions?
Mechanical trauma
Excess growth
Moisture
Manure
Bacteria
In bovine lameness, choose the agent or condition associated with:
- superficial necrosis
- liquefactive necrosis
- digital dermatitis
F. necrophorum - superficial necrosis
Dichelobacter - liquefactive necrosis
Treponema-like spirochete - digital dermatitis
Choose the agent or condition associated with:
- interdigital dermatitis
- is contagious
- penicillin resistance
(F. necrophorum, Dichelobacter, Porphyromonas) - interdigital dermatitis
Dichelobacter - contagious
Super foot rot - penicillin resistance
What are the 3 presentations of digital dermatitis?
Heel ulcers
Strawberry foot rot
Hairy heel warts
If you see a unilaterally raised toe, what do you think?
Unilateral joint infection; probably caused by interdigital hyperplasia
What are good drugs to use for the anaerobes? Spirochetes?
Anaerobes (Penicillin & sulfa)
Spirochetes (Ceftiofur, lincomycin, spectinomycin, oxytet)
Which foot conditions can be prevented via vaccination?
Foot rot (Interdigital dermatitis) - dichelobacter and Fusobacterium vaccine
What are the goals of foot trimming?
remove excess horn, remove bad horn
Open abscesses
Trim granulation tissue
Rebalance foot
Which cows get laminitis?
Post-parturient!
What is a hardship groove?
Horizontal groove or crack in horn d/t interrupted growth (laminitis)
Where does pododermatitis usually occur?
White line by toe in beef cattle
Heel/sole junction in dairy cattle
Pododermatitis aseptica et diffusa is the same as
Laminitis!
What are some musculoskeletal causes of bovine lameness and recumbency? Which has a breed predisposition?
White muscle dz
Elso heel (Angus & holstein)
Tendon rupture & trauma
Compartment syndrome
Spastic Syndrome
Septic arthritis & foot rot
Ertogism
Which nerves of the front limb are NOT found medially?
Radial nerve @ elbow
Supraspinatus
What is the most commonly damaged nerve in the DAM during parturition? Which spinal segment? What are clinical signs?
Peroneal nerve (L6 root); see toe dragging and difficulty bearing weight
Which nerves are most commonly affected due to injection damage?
Sciatic
Tibial
Which nerves are most often injured by long periods of restraint or sedation?
Radial nerve
Supraspinatus/infraspinatus
T or F:
Conversely to hindlimb issues, cows with humeral fractures can often bear weight.
True!
You see a 6 month old BAR calf with hindlimb paresis that localizes to the thoracolumbar region. What gives?
Vertebral abscess
You've just treated your cattle with ivermectin and now you have one that is dog sitting. What might be going on?
Hypoderma bovis in the cord!
What is the pathogenesis for organophosphate toxicity?
Demyelination
Which breeds get the weaves?
Brown swiss mostly; also Herefords (for SMA)
T or F:
Spinal-muscular atrophy and progressive degenerative myeloencephalopathy are different manifestations of the same process that causes Weaves.
False!
They are different histologically, SMA occurs in young animals while Weaves occurs in slightly older animals (full blown by 2 yrs) but both can be seen in brown swiss
What is probably the biggest contributor to dull/depressed down cows?
Metabolic diseases
Which of the following are not true regarding bovine hypokalemia?
a) often occurs post calving
b) cervical ventriflexion
c) flaccid paralysis
d) replenish K at a rate of 1mEq/hr
e) droopy cold ears
a) often occurs post calving
(ketosis occurs post calving and the ketosis treatment of steroids can bring about hypokalemia)
d) replenish K at a rate of 1mEq/hr (NO; 0.5mEq/kg/hr)
You see a down, depressed, dull cow that is peeing red, what gives?
Hypophosphatemia
What are some major complications of recumbency in large animals?
Decbital ulcers
Myositis/myopathy
Neuropathy
Mastitis (dairy cattle)
Bloat/aspiration