• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/42

Click to flip

42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Choose EEE, VEE, WEE, or a combination of these...
...alphavirus
EEE, VEE, WEE
Choose EEE, VEE, WEE, or a combination of these...
...highest mortality
EEE (90%)
VEE (40-80% but can be100%)
WEE (50-70%)
They're all pretty bad....
Choose EEE, VEE, WEE, or a combination of these...
...arbovirus
EEE, VEE, WEE
Choose EEE, VEE, WEE, or a combination of these...
...horses are dead-end hosts
EEE, WEE
Choose EEE, VEE, WEE, or a combination of these...
...biphasic fever
EEE, VEE, WEE
Choose EEE, VEE, WEE, or a combination of these...
...disease may not progress beyond mild signs
WEE
Choose EEE, VEE, WEE, or a combination of these...
...virus isolation from CSF
WEE when acute
Choose EEE, VEE, WEE, or a combination of these...
...lowest mortality
WEE
Choose EEE, VEE, WEE, or a combination of these...
...survivors are MOST likely to have residual neuro signs
EEE
Choose EEE, VEE, WEE, or a combination of these...
...4 to 6 month immunity with core vaccination
EEE, WEE
Which nerves are associated with temporohyoid osteopathy?
Facial and vestibulocochlear nerves (facial transects the bone; VIII is in petrous temporal bone)
T or F:
Most horses w/temporohyoid osteopathy have facial nerve deficits.
True! 88% do
Which joint is the problem in temporohyoid osteopathy?
Synchondrosis of stylohyoid bone and petrous temporal bone
Which of the following is the most likely cause of temporohyoid osteopathy?
a) Otitis media
b) Otitis interna
c) DJD of synchondrosis
d) congenital defect
e) Ca:P imbalance
c) DJD of synchondrosis
What are some behavioral signs of temporohyoid osteopathy?
unusual mastication, reluctance to put on halter, turning head, head shy, head shaking, vestibular signs
T or F:
Vestibular deficits are more common than facial nerve deficits in temporohyoid osteopathy.
False!
They're close...
88% Facial; 70% vestibular
Which of the following are NOT clinical signs of acute temporohyoid osteopathy?
a) head tilt
b) halter shy
c) vertical nystagmus
d) ataxia
e) KCS
b) halter shy (this is more a behavioral change before the acute issue)
c) vertical nystagmus (NO; this would be CENTRAL vestibular, should be HORIZONTAL)
What are some non-imaging diagnostics for temporohyoid osteopathy diagnosis?
Pain @ ear base
Head tilt
Increased Schirmer tear test time (decreased tear production)
What is the Romberg response?
Head tilt not elicited until blindfolded
How is temporohyoid osteopathy treated? What is the prognosis?
Surgery! Ceratohyoidectomy; good prognosis if caught early!
Which horses are overrepresented for cerebellar abiotrophy?
Arabs, Gotland Ponies, Oldenbergs
What are the "pathognomic" signs for cerebellar abiotrophy?
Intention tremors, ataxia, abnormal menace
T or F:
Cerebellar abiotrophy is a grossly evident lesion.
False! You need histo!
What is the histologic lesion in cerebellar abiotrophy?
Degeneration in Purkinje cells.
What should you use in an EMERGENCY treatment of equine seizures?
Diazepam, midazolam, or maybe an alpha 2
T or F:
Similarly to dogs, horses can be treated with phenobarbital or KBr for seizures.
True!
What is the signalment for "benign epilepsy"?
Otherwise known as Arab Seizure Syndrome!
Egyptian Arabs <1yr (usually <6mos); client finds foal with unexplained wounds
You find your Arab foal with unexplained wounds. What is the likely cause?
a) it's an Arab is is probably not the brightest and ran into something
b) ninjas
c) aliens
d) arab seizure syndrome
e) hydranencephaly
a) it's an Arab is is probably not the brightest and ran into something
d) arab seizure syndrome
How is Arab Seizure Syndrome treated?
a) benign neglect
b) diazepam
c) cull
d) phenobarbital
e) pentabarbital
a) benign neglect
d) phenobarbital
What are the 4 classic signs of equine motor neuron disease?
Weight loss
Muscle fasiculations
Progressive weakness
Muscle wasting
When do cerebellar abiotrophic foals commonly begin to show signs?
4 months
Which of the following are NOT true regarding equine lower motor neuron disease?
a) acquired disease
b) affects foals
c) most affected horses have limited exposure to pasture
d) common in the southwest
e) only common findings are absence of pasture and high concentrate diets
b) affects foals (NO; age 2-23 yrs)
d) common in the southwest (NO; along US/Canada border)
Which cranial nerves are most commonly affected with EMND?
V, VII, XII
Which of the following are NOT true regarding EMND?
a) not inflammatory
b) type I muscles mostly affected
c) spinal cord dorsal horn and nucleus ambiguus commonly affected along with cranial nerves V, VII, XII
d) 70% of motor neurons must be dysfunctional before clinical signs
e) probably an oxidative disorder
c) spinal cord dorsal horn and nucleus ambiguus commonly affected along with cranial nerves V, VII, XII (NO; VENTRAL HORN)
d) 70% of motor neurons must be dysfunctional before clinical signs (NO; 30%)
Which muscles are most severely affected in EMND?
Quadriceps, Triceps, Gluteal
What is a common signalment for EMND?
Older (10yo) Arab, QH, Stdbd, or TBD
Which of the following are associated with EMND?
a) shifting weight
b) sawhorse stance
c) elevated tailhead
d) stands on a ball like an elephant
e) roundhouse kick to your face
a) shifting weight
c) elevated tailhead
d) stands on a ball like an elephant (all legs underneath)
T or F:
Most horses with EMND are low in vitamin E.
True!
Which nerve can be biopsied to diagnose EMND? Which muscle?
Spinal accessory nerve
Sacrocaudalis dorsalis m.
T or F:
EMND cannot be diagnosed until more than 50% of type I fibers show atrophy.
False!
Only 20-30%
How is EMND treated?
Can't really treat it...
Maybe give Vitamin E and good quality hay (often euthanized)
What are some chem panel changes with EMND?
CK and AST eleveation