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52 Cards in this Set

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What is an important rule-out for signs of respiratory distress in piglets? What is the best way to detect respiratory disease in pigs?
Anemia;
Stir 'em up!!
What are the major viral respiratory diseases of swine? Which only affects piglets? Which is reportable?
Cytomegalovirus (Piglets)
Pseudorabies (reportable)
PRRS
Swine flu
PCAD (Porcine circovirus associated dz)
What are the major clinical signs of pseudorabies? What are necropsy lesions?
Cx - mostly CNS; some respiratory
white necrosis in liver (like equine EHV1)
Which 2 bacteria cause atrophic rhinitis? Which is progressive?
Pasteurella multocida (progressive)
Bordatella bronchiseptica (non-progressive)
Which of the following are true regarding swine influenza?
a) high mortality/low morbidity
b) H3N2/H1N1 are zoonotic
c) vaccines are often preventive
d) meaty lungs may be found on necropsy
b) H3N2/H1N1 are zoonotic
d) meaty lungs may be found on necropsy
(LOW mortality/HIGH morbidity; no real treatment or prevention)
What is the most economically important disease of the swine industry?
PRRS
How is PRRS transmitted? Where is it shed?
Shed in pretty much all body secretions; can be transmitted via aerosol, via skin wounds, & etc
Which are true regarding PRRS?
a) low mortality/high morbidity in nursery piglets
b) a dsRNA virus with low environmental stability
c) causes less reproductive issues and more respiratory issues
d) 40% of alveolar macrophages are killed by the virus in nursing pigs
c) causes less reproductive issues and more respiratory issues
d) 40% of alveolar macrophages are killed by the virus in nursing pigs
(note: high mortality in nursery/growers, low mortality in feeders; caused by an Arterivirus ssRNA virus)
What tissues are best sampled to demonstrate PRRS virus?
Lung; Tonsil
What porcine respiratory viral disease is associated with chronic wasting? What tissues does it impact?
PCAD (porcine circovirus associated disease); causes interstitial pneumonia and lymphadenopathy
Cranioventral distribution of lung lesions that look like "fish flesh" are likely due to...
...P. multocida
Firm lung lungs in the dorsal aspect of feeder pigs is likely due to which bacterium?
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae
Suppurative exudate in the lungs of pigs is likely due to...
...H. somnus
Which of the following is NOT correct regarding enzootic pneumonia in pigs?
a) caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae
b) usually caudodorsal distribution
c) rarely seen in young animals <1month of age
d) Penicillins are appropriate treatments
b) usually caudodorsal distribution (NOOOOO; cranioventral)
d) Penicillins are appropriate treatments (NOOOOO; mycoplasma have no cell wall)
(Enzootic pneumonia is d/t Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae)
What is a common practice for preventing endemic disease?
pulse medication
Procaine penicillin G is commonly used to treat which of the following:
a) Mycoplasma
b) Erysipelas
c) Clostridium
d) Brachyspira
e) Haemophilus
b) Erysipelas
c) Clostridium
(also the Strepts)
Tetracycline is commonly used to treat which of the following:
a) Mycoplasma
b) Erysipelas
c) Clostridium
d) Brachyspira
e) Haemophilus
b) Erysipelas
e) Haemophilus
(also Pasteurella; some Strepts)
Tylosin is good against which bacteria?
Mycoplasma and Brachyspira
Which broad-spectrum abx also gets Mycoplasma?
Which is good for Gram + and Strep suis?
Enrofloxacin (broad + myco)
Ceftiofur (Gram + and Strep suis)
Why do piglets get iron deficiency anemia?
They grow super fast!
Regarding swine reproduction, fill in the following...
Estrus is _____days with a _____day cycle. Gestation lasts ________ days.
2 d estrus w/21d cycle
113-115d gestation
Regarding swine reproduction, fill in the following...
The largest sow litters are the _________. Post weaning sows are back in estrus in ________ days. An acceptable abortion rate is ________.
4th to 5th litter is largest
In estrus 5-7d post weaning
2% acceptable abortion rate
Which of the following are NOT true regarding pig production?
a) Sows average >2 litters/year.
b) The average livebirths/litter is ~10.
c) Piglet survival rates are around 80%
d) On average, sows wean 27 piglets/year.
b) The average livebirths/litter is ~10. NOOOOOOOOOOO....this is the number of weaned piglets per litter (actually more like 11.2). Average live births/litter is 12.8.
What is the cause of most swine infertility issues?
a) management
b) viral
c) bacterial
d) genetics
e) idiopathic
a) management
Some management issues contributing to swine infertility include...
...heat stress, seasonal infertility, estrogenic mycotoxins, CO, sow overconditioning
What are viral causes of swine infertility?
PRRS
Hog cholera (Classical Swine Fever)
Pseudorabies
Circovirus
Parvovirus
Which etiologic agent is characterized by fetal mummies?
Parvovirus
Which etiologic agent is characterized by abortion storms, CSF signs, and involvement of other ages?
Pseudorabies
Which etiologic agent can cause fetal malformations or abortions due to fevers in sow?
Hog cholera (Classical Swine Fever)
Which etiologic agent is characterized by autolytic fetuses?
Leptospira
What is a postpartum cause of major economic loss in swine? What causes this condition and how is it treated?
Postpartum dysgalactia syndrome of sows (endotoxemia; Tx w/abx and banamine)
What are some common causes of piglet mortality?
Crushing/savaging by sow or gilt
Hypothermia
Hypoglycemia
Infections (Enteritis, Septicemia, Pneumonia)
Anemia
How old should piglets be before cross-fostering them and why?
18hrs; ensures adequate colostrum uptake
Which bacterium commonly causes cystitis/pyelonephritis in pigs?
Actinobaculum suis (anaerobe)
"turkey-egg" kidney in pigs are due to...
...sepsis, viral infxn, or DIC
What are 2 major differentials for fibrinous polyserositis in pigs?
Haemophilus parasuis
Strept. suis
Which are true regarding mulberry heart disease?
a) caused by a Se deficiency
b) caused by a Zn deficiency
c) is a form of fibrinous polyserositis
d) often accompanied with joint effusion
e) causes myocardial damage
a) caused by a Se deficiency
e) causes myocardial damage
(NO JOINT EFFUSION, PERITINOTIS, OR MENINGITIS)
What are the best samples to take in live animals to test for fibrinous polyserositis? In necropsied animals?
Live (joint tap)
Dead (swabs)
How can Glasser's Disease be treated?
Enrofloxacin or Florfenicol
(This is fibrinous polyserositis d/t Haemophilus parasuis)
Which common septicemia can mimic Erysipelas?
Actinobacillus suis
Which multisystemic disease presents similarly to Classic Swine Fever but is an arbovirus?
African Swine Fever
What are two top differentials for REALLY NASTY lymph nodes in a pig?
Classic Swine Fever (Hog Cholera)
Salmonellosis
Quick! What bacterial agents cause arthritis in pigs?
Haemophilus parasuis
Streptococcus suis
Erysipelas
Mycoplasmas (M. hyorhinus at <3 mos; M. hyosynoviae at 3-6 mos)
Vertebral abscesses in pigs are associated with...
...tail biting
Which of the following can cause hepatic disease in swine?
a) Vitamin E deficiency
b) PCAD
c) Lepto
d) Ascarid migration
e) Lung lobe torsion
a) Vitamin E deficiency (Hepatosis dietetica)
b) PCAD (Porcine circovirus-associated dz)
c) Lepto
d) Ascarid migration
(also LIVER lobe torsion, salmonellosis, pseudorabies)
IN pigs, congested, edematous lungs are associated with:
a) polyserositis
b) Mulberry Heart Disease
c) Glasser's Disease
d) Heat stroke
e) Chronic cigarette smoking
d) Heat stroke
Which pig breed is prone to melanomas?
Duroc
T or F:
Nephroblastoma is a high cause of mortality in 6-7 month old pigs.
False!
Usually incidental finding at slaughter.
What is the #1 cancer in pigs?
LSA
What are routine pig surgeries and when are they performed?
Clip teeth/tail dock (1wk)
Castration (2wks)
Which of the following are true regarding swine biosecurity?
a) most pathogens cannot spread beyond 1 km
b) quarantine periods should be at least 30 days
c) FMD, PCAD, and Parvovirus can spread the farthest
d) wildlife is not an important aspect of biosecurity
b) quarantine periods should be at least 30 days
(note: FMD, Parvo, and Pseudorabies can spread the farthest)
What are some diseases that outdoor pigs are exposed to that indoor pigs never see?
Sunburn!
Lungworms
More osteochondrosis
Soil-associated infections (tetanus)
etc...