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52 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the three common causative categories corresponding to chronic diarrhea?
Could I get any more C's in there...
Inflammatory, Organ Failure, Cellular (mitochondrial) issues
What is the best test for equine absorption? Which test is commonly performed for GI absorption?
D-xylose is best (tough to find and to handle though);
Most labs run glucose absorption
Which test is most diagnostic for chronic salmonellosis?
Fecal culture
What are leading theories for the etiology of most equine colics?
Immune-mediated
Bacterial
Parasitic
What can abdominocentesis be used to rule out/in?
Peritonitis
Lymphoma
GI perforation
Inflammation (GI permeability)
Which of the following colic or chronic adult diarrhea treatments are often done empirically?
a) corticosteroids
b) Diamond V active yeast
c) diet change
d) transfaunation
e) deworming
all of them often are!
What is the most common cause of equine abdominal discomfort?
Spasmodic colic!
What is colloquially known as a "banamine deficiency"?
Spasmodic colic
Which equine colics are ACUTE?
Spamodic colic
Flatulent Colic
Large Colon Impaction
Enteroliths (can be)
Displacements
Volvuli/Torsions
Grain overload
Which of the colics typically impact young animals? What else should probably be on your differential list for these?
Small Colon Impaction (think about Salmonella also);
SI strangulation due to mesenteric rents, mesodiverticular bands;
Intussusceptions;
Ascarid impactions
Which of the colics do you really only find in older horses?
Enteroliths
SI strangulation d/t pedunculated lipoma
Rectal palpation will likely be diagnostic for which of the following:
a) Spasmodic colic
b) Flatulent Colic
c) Large colon impaction
d) sand colic
e) enteroliths
b) Flatulent Colic
c) Large colon impaction
Gas or abdominal distention is commonly associated with which of the following?
a) Spasmodic colic
b) Flatulent Colic
c) Large colon impaction
d) Enteroliths
e) Colon strangulation
b) flatulent colic
d) enteroliths
e) Colon strangulation
Anorexia is a common sign of which of the following?
a) Spasmodic colic
b) Flatulent Colic
c) Large colon impaction
d) sand colic
e) enteroliths
c) Large colon impaction
What are postulated causes for enteroliths? Where are they commonly found? What is the pathogenesis?
Foreign material or certain alfalfa hay; maybe water source;
Lodge in transverse colon, RDC, maybe pelvic flexure
Acts like a one-way ball valve
Which colic is associated with diarrhea, weight loss, and diagnosis via ventral auscultation?
Sand colic
Which of the following can present with a intense and/or unrelenting pain?
a) Spasmodic colic
b) Flatulent Colic
c) Large colon impaction
d) sand colic
e) enteroliths
b) Flatulent Colic (can be intense)
e) Enteroliths (can be unrelenting)
Which of the following may show abnormal abdominocentesis?
a) Spasmodic colic
b) Flatulent Colic
c) Large colon impaction
d) sand colic
e) enteroliths
Large colon impaction
How can sand colic be diagnosed? How can it be treated and/or prevented?
Dx: via ventral auscultation, fecal sedimentation, maybe rads.
Tx: with Sx or psyllium (psyllium 1 week/month can be preventive)
T or F:
Cecal and small colon impactions are slow onset.
True
Fecal python =
Small colon impaction
If you go to do an abdominocentesis and get a blood that clots in your tube, how might you interpret this?
You stabbed the spleeeeen! There might be a nephrosplenic entrapment, pulling the spleen to the right!
In which of the following is rectal palpation usually diagnostic?
a) cecal impaction
b) proximal enteritis
c) colon strangulation
d) nephrosplenic entrapment
e) colon displacement
a) cecal impaction
b) proximal enteritis
d) nephrosplenic entrapment
e) colon displacement
(note - colon strangulation may be too far cranial to palpate!)
T or F:
Cecal impaction is the most common cause of cecal obstruction.
Believe it or not - it's true!
How are impactions treated?
Aggressive fluid therapy (Oral + IV)
Analgesia
Surgery
(peri-op enema for small colon impactions)
Which of the following DOES typically have a favorable prognosis?
a) Small colon impactions
b) Nephrosplenic entrapment
c) Right dorsal displacement
d) Colon strangulation
e) cecal impaction
a) Small colon impactions
b) Nephrosplenic entrapment
c) Right dorsal displacement
Which of the following is characterized by decreased fecal passage?
a) cecal impactions
b) colon strangulation
c) small intestinal strangulation
d) small colon impactions
e) grain overload
d) small colon impactions (is the only one from the notes - I think that cecal impaction could be argued)
What is the normal heart rate for a horse? For a horse in moderate pain? Severe pain?
32-44 normal
50-60 moderate pain
80-100 severe pain
Which colic receives a peri-operative enema with surgical treatment?
Small colon impactions
Colon displacement is named relative to where the _________ colon is in the abdomen.
LEFT COLON
What are the two main forms of colon displacement?
Left dorsal (nephrosplenic entrapment)
Right dorsal
What are some non-surgical techniques for reducing a nephrosplenic entrapment?
Roll 360 degrees (start on R lateral)
Phenylephrine + lunging
T or F:
Right dorsal colonic displacement must be reduced surgically due to its potential for rupture while nephrosplenic entrapment, with a lower rupture potential, can be reduced medically.
False! Both have a potential for colon rupture!
You note the absence of the left kidney on equine ultrasound. Which colic may cause this?
Nephrosplenic entrapment of the colon
What is the most painful and severe form of colic?
Colon strangulation (torsion or volvulus)
A 7yo horse that was in last week for some crazy ortho procedure presents with a mild colic with a HR of 60. Rectal palpation finds the large bowel engorged with a soft material. What is your TOP differential! Any others?
1) Cecal impaction
2) maybe large colon impaction (but this would be more acute)
T or F:
There is often little to no vascular compromise in colonic displacements.
True!
What is the common signalment for colon strangulation?
Post-parturient brood mare (30d out)
How might a horse present with a strangulated colon?
SEVERE COLIC
HR >80
Abdominal distention
most likely post-parturient brood mare
How is a strangulated colon treated?
SURGERY within 4 hours or colon is DEAD
What are presurgical treatments for small intestinal strangulation?
Treat shock first!
(NSAIDs, fluids, analgesics)
A serosanguinous abdominocentesis is indicative of...
...Small intestinal strangulation
maybe nephrosplenic entrapment (but this should look like frank blood and CLOT)
Which colic happens more in fall/winter?
Small colon impactions
Which are FALSE regarding intussusceptions in horses?
a) it has a nematode association
b) Foals and yearlings get them more often
c) intussusceptum is inside the intussuscipiens
d) cecocolic is the most common form
a) it has a nematode association (NO, IT'S CESTODE)
d) cecocolic is the most common form (NO, IT'S ILEOCECAL ORIFICE)
Gastric decompression helps the most with which colic?
Proximal enteritis;
Distended SI will decrease w/treatment
Which colic is associated with rescue horses?
Ascarid impaction
Which colic may present with HR >100 at times?
Grain overload
Which colics may present with diarrhea?
Grain overload
Sand colic
Which arteries are affected in verminous enteritis?
Cranial mesenteric artery (textbook lesion)
Ileocecocolic artery too
You see a horse out in Scio that presents with severe pain, high protein in abdominocentesis, and has reflux. What is your top diagnosis? How will you treat this horse?
Small intestinal strangulation;
bring him to surgery!
You see a horse out in Hotlanta that presents with severe pain, high protein in abdominocentesis, and has reflux. What is your top diagnosis? How will you treat this horse?
Proximal Enteritis;
REFLUX, fluids and acid/base therapy, prokinetics, parenteral support, laminitis prevention, maybe explore if strangulation suspect
T or F:
The ONLY treatment for an ascarid impaction is surgery!
True!