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48 Cards in this Set

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Why is hip dysplasia rare in the horse?
Greater depth to the acetabular lip
What keeps the horse from kicking out laterally?
Accessory ligament of the head of the femur
Where does the ligament of the head of the femur originate from in the horse? In the ruminant?
Horse - pubic groove near acetabular notch
Ruminant - acetabulum
From where does the accessory ligament of the head of the femur originate in the horse?
Prepubic tendon
What ligament covers the acetabular notch?
Transverse acetabular ligament
Where is the coxofemoral joint injection done in the horse?
Btw. greater and lesser trochanter, direct needle craniomedially to a depth of 11 to 12 cm
yeah right
Which is more proximal, the base or the apex of the patella?
The base is the most proximal
Is the parapatellar fibrocartilage located medially or laterally?
Medially
T or F:
The patella is the only sesamoid bone in the large animal stifle joint.
True!
What are the three patellar ligaments? Which animals are they found in?
Lateral, middle, medial
In horse and ox
Which patellar cartilage is most commonly torn?
Medial is most commonly torn (causes lateral patellar luxation)
Which ligaments course from the menisci to the tibia?
cranial and caudal meniscotibial ligaments
Which ligaments course from the menisci to the femur?
ONLY the meniscofemoral ligament! From the lateral meniscus!
Where does the patella "lock" in the horse?
On the medial trochlear ridge of the femur
What are the three patellar positions?
Gliding surface for progression
Resting for standing squarely or walking
Locking
Which muscle is involved in the patellar locking mechanism?
Vastus medialis
Which of the synovial pouches of the femorotibial joint communicates with the femoropatellar joint?
Medial pouch usually does
Lateral pouch does in 25% of horses
Where would the femoropatellar joint be injected in the horse?
Dorsal to tibial crest btw. middle and medial patellar ligs.
Where would the medial femorotibial pouch be injected in the horse?
btw medial patellar ligament and the medial collatoral ligament
Where would the lateral femorotibial pouch be injected in the horse?
Between the lateral patellar ligament and the lateral collateral ligament
What term describes inflammation of the stifle?
Gonitis
Inability to unlock the patella is known as...
...upward fixation of the patella
How many patellar ligaments in the small ruminant?
Just one. :(
What are the bones of the equine tarsus?
Calcaneus
Talus
Fused tarsal 1 and 2
Central tarsal bone
3rd and 4th tarsal bones
Which tarsal collateral ligament forms a canal for the lateral digital extensor tendon?
Lateral collateral ligament
Curb is caused by inflammation of what structure?
Long plantar ligament
What is the function of the long plantar ligament?
Counteracts the pull of the common calcaneal tendon
What are the joints of the equine tarsus?
Tarsocrural (tarsotibial)
Proximal intertarsal
Distal intertarsal joint
Tarsometatarsal joint
Which joints of the equine tarsus communicate?
Tarsocrural (tarsotibial)
Proximal intertarsal
Which joint of the equine carpus has the greatest mobility?
Tarsocrural (tibiotarsal)
Which tarsal joint are the four tarsal pouches associated with?
Tarsocrural (tibiotarsal) joint
What are the boundaries of the dorsomedial pouch?
Cunean tendon
Peroneus tertius
Medial collateral lig
Medial malleolus
What are the boundaries of the Medioplantar pouch?
medial collateral lig
DDF
level of medial malleolus
What are the boundaries of the dorsolateral pouch?
lateral collateral lig
btw long and lat digital ext tendon
short digital ext
What are the boundaries to the lateroplantar pouch?
caudal to the lateral collateral lig
btw calcaneus and lat malleolus
Where is the tarsocrural joint commonly injected? What structure must be avoided?
Dorsomedial pouch
avoid cranial br. of the medial saphenous v.
Where is the distal intertarsal joint injected?
medial surface of tarsus
btw. distal tubercle of the talus and space btw metatarsals II and III proximally
Where is the cunean bursa injected?
medial surface of tarsus
under distal border of cunean tendon
Where is the tarsometatarsal joint injected?
Plantarolateral aspect of tarsus
insert needle proximal to head of metatarsal IV
Which tendons do the tarsal sheath enclose?
Lateral and caudal heads of the DDF
Inflammation of the tarsal sheath is called...
Thoroughpin
Osteoarthritis of the distal hock joints is known as...
Spavin!
A neurological hyperflexion of joints of pelvic limb is called
Stringhalt
How can stringhalt be treated?
remove lateral digital extensor muscle insertion (less input to lateral collateral ligament)
What is the stifle component of the pelvic stay apparatus?
Patellar locking mechanism of the stifle
What is the hock component of the pelvic stay apparatus?
SDF prevents flexion of hock
How does the pelvic limb stay apparatus differ from that of the thoracic limb below the hock?
Not much different.
Pelvic limb has no prox check lig; SDF attaches directly to tuber calcanei
Distal check ligament may not be present.
What are the bones of the bovine tarsus?
Calcaneus
Talus
Fused 2nd and 3rd tarsal bones
Fused central and 4th tarsal bones