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61 Cards in this Set

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What is the difference between serum and plasma?
Clotting factors! Serum doesn't have any!
What proteins are measured typically?
Total protein
Albumin
Fibrinogen
Globulins
Which is smaller - albumin or globulins?
Albumin!
What are some types of hyperproteinemia?
Hyperalbuminemia & hemoconcentration
Hyperglobulinemia
Hyperfibrinogenemia
T or F:
The only cause of hyperalbuminemia is hemoconcentration
True! The only way to get hyperalbuminemia is through dehydration
What are causes of increased globulin synthesis?
Inflammation
Neoplasia (B-lymphocytes)
What is a major cause of increased fibrinogen in large animals?
Inflammation
What types of neoplasia are usually associated with monoclonal gammopathy?
Lymphoma, plasma cell tumor, lymphocytic leukemia
What are some non-neoplastic causes of monoclonal gammopathy?
Erlichiosis
Leishmaniasis
Chronic pyoderma
What are the two patterns of gammopathy?
Monoclonal and polyclonal gammopathy
What are the two general causes of hypoproteinemia?
Loss
Failure of synthesis
How can proteins be lost? Which proteins will be lost in each case?
Renal (loss via glomeruli) - albumin
GI loss - panhypoproteinemia
What are some causes of hypoalbuminemia due to failure of synthesis?
Liver failure
Prolonged malabsorption/maldigestion
What are some causes of hypoglobulinemia due to synthesis failure?
Failure of passive transfer (neonate);
Immune deficiency
What are some tests for failure of passive transfer? Which animals is each test used for?
Refractometer (calves)
NaSO3 (calves and crias)
ZnSO4 (calves and foals)
Glutaraldehyde coagulation (foals)
ELISA (foals)
What is the difference between hyperlipemia and hyperlipidemia?
Both indicate increased concentrations of lipids in the blood; hyperlipemia indicates that it is grossly visible
When should hyperlipidemia peak post prandial? When should it be cleared?
Peak 2-6h;
Clears by 8-16h
What are some general causes of hypercholesterolemia?
Endocrinopathies;
Protein losing glomerulopathy;
Cholestasis;
Acute pancreatitis
How does protein losing glomerulopathy cause hypercholesteremia?
Albumin loss leads to reduced oncotic pressure; liver then overproduces cholesterol to compensate
What are some general causes of hypocholesteremia?
Hepatopathy (decreased production)
Protein losing enteropathy
Hypoadrenocorticism
Severe malnutrition
T or F:
Causes of hypertriglyceridemia are similar to causes of hypercholesteremia.
Tru dat
What are the regulators of glucose? Which one lowers blood glucose levels?
Insulin (lowers blood glucose);
Glucagon;
Glucocorticoids;
Catecholamines:
Growth hormone
What is the most common cause of hypoglycemia in bloodwork?
Poor sample handling (not separating blood from serum)
What are the major causes of hypoglycemia?
Increased usage;
Decreased production
What are the glucose evaluation methods?
POrtable glucometers
Urine glucose
Serum insulin assay
Fructosamine
Glycated Hgb
How can stress-induced hyperglycemia be ruled-out?
Urinalysis;
Fructosamine assay
Other than a serum insulin assay, what else is necessary to diagnose neoplastic hyperinsulinism?
Blood glucose level (to calculate insulin:glucose)
What are some causes of hyperketonemia?
D. mellitus
Bovine ketosis
Pregnancy toxemia
Hepatic lipidosis
Starvation
Anorexia
Atkin's diet
T or F:
PO2 can only be interpreted on arterial blood.
True!
Which of the following values is/are calculated? Which is/are measured directly in the blood?
a) pH
b) PO2
c) HCO3-
d) PCO2
HCO3 is measured indirectly (calculated); the remaining values are measured directly
The actual bicarb value minus the normal bicarb value denotes the...
...base excess
A negative base excess denotes...
...ACIDOSIS
CO2 + H2O <-->H+ + HCO3 -

Which side is under lung control? Which side under kidney control?
Lungs control CO2
Kidneys control H+ and HCO3-
low pH and low [HCO3-]
metabolic acidosis
high pH and high [HCO3-]
metabolic alkalosis
low pH and high PCO2
respiratory acidosis
high pH and low PCO2
respiratory alkalosis
For every 1mEq/L change in HCO3-, there is a concurrent change in PCO2 on the order of...
...0.7mm/Hg
What are the two basic mechanisms explaining metabolic acidosis?
Secretional (hyperchloremic);
Titrational metabolic acidosis
How does secretional or hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis occur?
INcreased loss of bicarb (stool/saliva/urine);
Kidneys then retain Cl- to make up for bicarb loss
What are causes of titrational metabolic acidosis?
Shock (lactic acid);
diabetes/starvation (keto acids);
Uremic acids;
Exogenous acids (EG, salicylates);
other exogenous acid
How can secretional and titrational metabolic acidosis be differentiated?
Anion Gap; increased AG = titational acidosis
What is the basic formula for anion gap? What are normal values?
(Na+K)-(Cl + HCO3);
15-25 for cats/dogs;
10-20 for large animals
What is the upper normal limit for PCO2? What happens above this level?
PCO2 can't be above 60mmHg without causing respiratory acidosis
What are major causes of metabolic alkalosis?
HCl loss or sequesteration (vomiting, DA, vagal indigestion);
Iatrogenic bicarb;
electrolyte imbalances
What is the progression of paradoxical aciduria with metabolic alkalosis?
Hypovolemia from vomiting causes kidneys to retain Na. Kidneys can't resorb Cl to maintain electroneutrality, so they EXCRETE H+!
What are some major causes of respiratory alkalosis?
Extrathoracic hyperventilation (fever, pain, excitement);
Intrathoracic hyperventilation (due to decreased PO2)
What are the major electrolytes of laboratory interest?
Na, K, Cl, and HCO3
What is the major cation in plasma? How 'bout intracellular cation?
Na (plasma)
K (intracellular)
Which hormones regulate Na in the body?
Aldosterone;
Atrial Naturetic Factor
What are major causes of hypernatremia?
Dehydration
Salt poisoning (+ no water)
Hyperadrenocorticism (slight low Na)
Primary adipsia (RARE)
What are major causes of hyponatremia?
Hypoadrenocortism;
Diarrhea;
Renal dz;
Sequestration (3rd space loss; DA)
T or F:
Serum [K+] reflects body [K+].
False!
What can affect serum potassium concentration?
Diet;
Renal excretion;
Compartment shifting
What are major causes of hyperkalemia?
Addison's dz (hypoadrenocortism);
Renal dz;
acidosis;
insulin deficiency;
other shit
What hormone shifts K into cells?
Insulin
What are some causes of hypokalemia?
GI loss;
Urinary loss;
hyperadrenocortism
Alkalosis
Insulin therapy
How can the urinary system cause hypokalemia?
Osmotic diuresis;
Non K-sparing diuretics;
cats w/chronic metabolic acidosis
How is Cl usually lost? What metabolic condition is this usually associated with?
with gastric or abomasal fluids (associated w/metabolic alkalosis)
What metabolic condition causes hyperchloridemia?
Secretional metabolic acidosis
T or F:
Na concentration pretty much controls osmolality.
Tru dat!