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157 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the spiral/curved bacterial organisms that are associated with waterborne infectious disease?
Aeromonas
Vibrio
Plesiomonas
T or F:
Vibrio cholera is a waterborne disease.
True
What are the three species of pathogenic interest in Campylobacter?
C. jejuni
C. coli
C. fetus
T or F:
Campylobacter spp. have a unipolar flagella.
False! Bipolar flagella
What are the main virulence factors of Campylobacter spp.?
Flagella
Adhesins
Invasins
CDT (Cytolethal Distending Toxin)
Which of the Campylobacter virulence factors works by messing with the host cell cycle?
CDT (cytolethal distending toxin)
What is the main form of Campylobacter treatment? Is there any resistance to this treatment?
Quinolones
(Cipro resistance)
How is Guillian-Barre Syndrome linked with Campylobacter infection?
Campylobacter 0:19 has EXACT same LPS carbohydrate residue as nerve cells, causing autoimmune response
What extra virulence factor does Campylobacter fetus have and how does it work?
S-protein coats entire bacterium, shielding it from complement (C3b) attack
Of the 3 species of veterinary interest in Campylobacter, which is most likely to have bloodstream infections and why?
C. fetus; S-protein shields from complement attack
How is Campylobacter fetus transmitted generally?
STD; transmitted from bull or via AI
If no other cause of abortion can be determined, which of the spirally-looking bacteria might be the culprit?
Arcobacter
Where in the GI tract does Campylobacter usually cause disease?
intestines
Where in the GI tract does Helicobacter usually cause disease?
stomach
T or F:
Helicobacter spp. have a unipolar flagella.
True
What are the virulence factors of Helicobacter? Which is the most virulent?
Urease (most virulent)
Mucinase
Adhesins
Flagella
What are some main genera of veterinary interest of the Enterobacteriaceae?
Escherichia
Salmonella
Yershina
Proteus
Klebsiella
T or F:
Most Enterobacteriaceae are obligate anaerobes.
False! Facultative anaerobes!
T or F:
All Enterobacteriaceae are Gram negative rods.
True
What are general distinguishing characteristics of E. coli in diagnostic testing (ie: growth on plates)?
Grows pink on MacConkey agar
What are general distinguishing characteristics of Salmonella in diagnostic testing (ie: growth on plates)?
H2S positive
What are general distinguishing characteristics of Proteus in diagnostic testing (ie: growth on plates)?
swarms on agar
Which three antigens are found in the envelope of Enterobacteriaceae and what structure is associated with each antigen?
H - flagellar antigen
K - capsule antigen
O - LPS antigen
What are some general virulence factors of the Enterobacteriaciae?
LPS (endotoxin and endotoxic shock)
Enterotoxins
Capsule
Phase variation of antigens
Siderophores (sequestration of growth factors)
antimicrobial resistance
T or F:
E. coli is the most common facultative anaerobe in the mammalian GI tract.
True
Which four factors determine the virotype of E. coli?
Patterns of attachment
Effects of attachment
Production of toxins
Invasiveness
What are the 3 major intestinal virotypes of E. coli?
EPEC
EHEC
ETEC
What are the toxins in effect for ETEC?
LT1 and LT2 (heat labile toxins 1 and 2)
STa (heat stable toxin)
Which antigen defines ETEC disease?
Fimbrae (eg: K88 or K99)
Why aren't older cows afflicted with scours from E. coli K99?
Fimbral receptor for K99 is only present in young cows
What kind of diarrhea does ETEC cause?
Hypersecretory diarrhea
What kind of diarrhea does EPEC cause?
Malabsorptiive
Let's play ETEC, EPEC, or EHEC...
...less-intimate bacterial adherence.
ETEC (also EHEC initially)
Let's play ETEC, EPEC, or EHEC...
...releases toxins into vasculature.
EHEC
Let's play ETEC, EPEC, or EHEC...
...does not invade the tissues.
ETEC, EPEC, and EHEC
Let's play ETEC, EPEC, or EHEC...
...secretes enterotoxin.
ETEC
Let's play ETEC, EPEC, or EHEC...
...forms pedestals.
EPEC and EHEC
Let's play ETEC, EPEC, or EHEC...
...secretes few (or no) toxins.
EPEC
Let's play ETEC, EPEC, or EHEC...
...shigatoxin.
EHEC
T or F:
Cattle are immune to EHEC.
True! They have no shigatoxin receptor for the B subunit
Where can EHEC be found in cattle?
Rectoanal junction
What disease(s) does EHEC cause in pigs?
Edema disease
Post weaning diarrhea
Let's play ETEC, EPEC, or EHEC...
...causes HUS in dogs.
EHEC (HUS = hemolytic, uremic syndrome)
Describe the pathogenesis of UPEC.
P1 pilli attach to bladder cells
Damage bladder
Inflammatory process ensues
T or F:
E. coli is a primary cause of contagious mastitis.
False! E. coli is considered an environmental contaminant
In which species is colisepticemia common?
Calves and pigs
T or F:
Shigella is a common pathogen of domestic animals.
False! Humans and non-human primates
T or F:
Shigella is an facultative intracellular organism.
True!
What organism is responsible for typhoid fever?
Salmonella typhi
I am the KING of serotypic variation, there is none higha...
...sucka MCs all call me SIRE.

Yeah, its Salmonella
What are the two clinical syndromes of non-typhi salmenellosis?
enteric (diarrrhea) and Septicemic
What is the pathogen responsible for the black plague?
Yershinia pestis
What is the "normal" plague cycle?
Sylvatic plague =
transmission between wild rodents and infected fleas
What is a common condition caused by Proteus spp.? What species does this commonly occur in?
UTI in dogs/horses
Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Serratia all cause which disease...
...mastitis
Morganella causes which diseases?
Ear and UTI in dogs and cats
What chronic diseases are associated with helicobacter infection?
Chronic gastritis
Ulcers
Stomach cancer
What is the proposed mechanism for helicobacter carcinogenesis?
Urease produces NH3 which forms nitrosamines
nitrosamines are mutagenic
What is the ULTIMATE OPPORTUNIST?
Pseudomonas spp.
T or F:
Pseudomonas rarely infects an uncompromised host.
True! It is an opportunistic pathogen and has trouble getting in to the system.
What is the major virulence factor of Pseudomonas spp.?
Alginate expolysaccharide capsule
What is the MAIN bacterial species of veterinary interest for Pseudomonas?
P. aeruginosa
Which species can be vaccinated against P. aeroginosa infection?
Mink
Canine chronic otitis is caused by which bacterium?
P. aeroginosa
What are the major virulence factors of P. aeroginosa?
Alginate capsule
LPS
Endotoxin A
Siderophores (pseudomonas pigments)
What are some effective antibiotics against P. aeroginosa?
Fluoroquinilones
Gentamicin
Imipenem
How does Burkholderia differ from Pseudomonas?
Mostly genetic
What are the two major pathogenic species of Burkholderia and what diseases are associated with each?
B. mallei (glander)
B. pseudomallei ( meloidosis)
Where does glanders manifest in horses?
Necrosis of nasal mucous membranes, lymphatics, lymph nodes, skin
How is Taylorella equigenitalis commonly spread in horses?
STD (breeding or AI)
T or F:
Taylorella equigenitalis is easily cultured from infected horses.
False!
It requires special growth media
T or F:
There is no vaccine available against CEM.
True
T or F:
Males with CEM are asymptomatic.
True
Which species does Morexella typically cause disease in? Which species of Morexella are involved?
Cows (M. bovis)
Sheep (M. ovis)
What is the morphology of Morexella?
Gram -
Paired coccobacilli (looks pretty much like Neisseria)
What tissue does Morexella like to inhabit?
Mucous membranes
Lives in neutrophils
What is the most common disease caused by Morexella in cattle? How is Morexella spread?
Pink eye
Fly or fomite vector
Which genera of Pasteurellaceae are of veterinary importance?
Pasteurella
Haemophilus
Mannheimia
Actinobacillus
T or F:
Members of Pasteurellaceae are very difficult to culture.
False! They are very hardy!
What general category of disease does Pasteurellaceae generally cause (like skin disease, GI disease, respiratory dz, & etc)?
Respiratory (likes mucous membranes)
What is the most significant species of Pasteurella? In which species is it important?
P. multocida
Found in birds, pigs, rabbits
T or F:
P. multocida has zoonotic potential.
True! Via cat bites.
What are some major virulence factors of Pasturella?
Capsule
Adhesive factors (filamentous hemagglutinin)
PMT (pasturella multocida toxin)
What does P. multocida cause in pigs? In fowl? Mammals? Rabbits?
Pigs (atrophic rhinitis)
Fowl (fowl cholera)
Mammals (hemorrhagic septicemia)
Rabbits (snuffles)
Which toxin is key in atrophic rhinitis? How does the bacterium acquire this toxin?
PMT (pasturella multocida toxin); toxin carried on bacteriophage
What is the main (unique) virulence factor commonly associated with Shipping Fever?
Mannheimia leukotoxin
T or F:
Mannheimia leukotoxin blocks apoptosis at low concentrations and is cytotoxic at high concentrations.
False!
It blocks PHAGOCYTOSIS at low concentrations.
It is true that it is cytotoxic at high concentrations.
What is the "hallmark" of Haemophilus? (hint...think growth requirements)
Requires X and V factors to grow
(x = hemin; v = NAD)
What are factors X and Y anyhoo? Which organism(s) require these to grow?
X = hemin
Y = NAD
Required by Haemophilus spp.
T or F:
Factors X and V are important virulence factors of Haemophilus spp.
False!
They are growth requirements of most Haemophilus spp.
What is the specific form of LPS used in Haemophilus spp.?
LOS - lipooligosaccharide (a truncated LPS)
Glasser's Disease is caused by which pathogen? How is it commonly transferred?
Haemophilus parasuis; transferred sow to piglet (in period between passive and active immunity)
What Haemophilus-caused disease affects the poultry industry? Which species causes this?
Avian coryza
H. paragallinarium
What is one major difference between Haemophilus and Histophilus?
Histophilus doesn't need X and V factors.
What are the three forms of Haemophilus somni infection?
STD
Respiratory
Septicemia
What is a major virulence factor in Actinobacillus infection?
Hemolysins (similar to Hly in E. coli)
"Wooden Tongue" is caused by which bacterial pathogen?
Actinobacillus ligniersii
Which other bacterial pathogen might Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae synergise with?
Pasturella multocida
Which antibody is important for bovine resistance to H. somni?
IgG2b
T or F:
An animal immunized to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae has long-term resistance.
False!
Pretty piss-poor; only resistant to specific serotype
T or F:
An animal that recovered from an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection has long-term resistance.
True!
What does DIVA stand for?
Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals
What is responsible for sleepy foal disease?
Actinobacillus equi
T or F:
Bordatella petrussis is the cause of kennel cough.
False!
B. bronchiseptica! B. pertussis causes whooping cough in humans!
What are the secreted toxins of Bordatella spp.? Which causes cells to divide?
Hemolysin
Tracheal Cytotoxin
Dermonecrotic toxin (causes cell division)
T or F:
Bordatella spp. commonly causes disease within and without the respiratory tract.
False!
Dz. outside the respiratory tract is rare!
Which of the secreted Bordatella toxins caused ciliastasis?
Tracheal cytotoxin
T or F:
B. bronchiseptica causes a similar pathogenesis in cats and dogs.
yup. pretty much the same disease
Why does Bordatella secrete a toxin promoting cell growth? Which toxin is this?
Cellular growth promotes hyperplasia allowing for colonization deeper into the respiratory tract. Dermonecrotic toxin mediates this.
Which virulence factor of Bordatella is critical to attachment to ciliated cells?
Filamentous hemagglutinin
What are the most important species (or genera) of ANAEROBIC pathogenic bacteria? (there are 6)
Bacteroides fragilis
Prevotella and Porphyromonas
Fusobacterium necrophorum
Dichelobacternodosus
Treponema spp.
Brachyspira spp.
T or F:
Bacteroides spp. are anaerobic gram negative bacteria that can tolerate and use oxygen.
True!
When are Bacteroides spp. a problem (ie: when are they pathogenic)?
When commensal intestinal flora is in imbalance
What diseases/conditions are associated with Bacteroides spp. infection?
Neonatal diarrhea
Bovine abortion
feline/canine abscesses
Intraabdominal abscesses
Soft tissue infection
Bacteremia
T or F:
The LPS for Bacteroides spp. is the same as the LPS found in E. coli.
False!
LPS in Bacteroides is less toxogenic than E. coli
Which Bacteroides virulence factor is primarily responsible for diarrhea? What is the pathogenesis?
B. fragilis enterotoxin (BFT) is a Zn metalloprotease that destroys tight junctions in intestinal epithelium causing leakage and diarrhea.
What is the main difference between Prevotella and Porphyromonas?
Prevotella is saccharolytic while Porphyromonas is not.
Which anaerobic species are commonly responsible for periodontal disease in animals?
Prevotella and Porphyromonas
What bacteria work in synergy with Fusobacterium necrophorum? What disease do they cause?
Prevotella and Porphyromonas; also Dichelobacter make footrot
OK so we all know that Fusobacterium necrophorum causes footrot. What other diseases does it cause?
Necrotic bacillosis (liver abscesses)
Necrotic laryngitis (calf diptheria)
What are the two main virulence factors involved in Fusobacterium necrophorum infections? What does each do?
Leukotoxin - protects against phagocytosis
Endotoxin - creates an anaerobic environment for anaerobic growth
Which virulence factor provides significant immune protection against Fusobacterium necrophorum infection?
Leukotoxin (elicits a high Ab titer)
What is the CHIEF causative agent in ovine footrot?
Dichelobacter nodosus
What remarkable type of motility does Dichelobacter nodosus exhibit? Which virulence factor allows for this?
Twitching motility allowed by Type IV pili
T or F:
Dichelobacter nodosus immunity is broad once infected by one serogroup.
False! Immunity is serogroup-specific.
Which bacteria species may be involved in Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex?
Mannheimia haemolytica
Pasteurella
Histophilus
Mycoplasma
Which viruses may be involved in Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex?
BRSV
BHV
BVDV
PI-3
Even though vaccines exist for the organisms involved in BRDC, why is it sometimes not a good idea to vaccinate?
Vaccine-induced immunosuppression may trigger BRDC.
What are some major bacterial factors leading to tissue damage in BRDC?
Leukotoxin
LPS
LOS (short LPS)
T or F:
LOS (Lipooligosaccharide) is a form of LPS.
True! LOS is short LPS
T or F:
Mycobacterium cannot survive within the macrophage.
False! It definitely can!
Describe the staining properties of Mycobacterium spp.
Acid fast
Gram +
Describe Mycobacterium physiology in terms of oxygen metabolism
obligate aerobe
What lesion type does Mycobacterium generally form?
a granuloma
How does Mycobacterium live inside the macrophage (ie: how does it prevent degredation)?
prevents phagosome from fusing with the lysosome
T or F:
Most mycobacteria within a granuloma are outside cells.
True
Which pathogenic mycobacteria need to cross the mucosal barrier?
All of them!
T or F:
Mycobacterium bovis is zoonotic.
True
How is M. bovis diagnosed?
Tuberculin test
Specimen culture
IFN-gamma (?)
How is M. avium diagnosed?
ONLY through culturing
Which pathogen is responsible for Johne's Disease?
Mycobacterium paratuberculosis
T or F:
Cattle, sheep, and camelids are all highly susceptible to Johne's Disease.
Dr. Bermudez says that sheep don't get it but I think that they do!
Is there a vaccine available for Johne's Disease?
Yes
What staining mechanisms are effective to visualize Spirochetes?
Dark field microscopy
Silver stain
Fluorescent antibodies
What form of motility do spirochetes exhibit?
Corkscrew motility
Where are spirochete flagella located?
Between cytoplasmic membrane and outer sheath
What are the 4 genera of spirochetes and where does each infect?
Treponema (humans)
Borrelia (humans/mammals)
Leptospira (mammals)
Brachyspira; Serpulina (intestinal parasites)
What tissue does Leptospira spp. commonly colonize?
Renal tubules
What is the main carrier for Leptospirosis?
Rodents
What are the four general steps in Leptospira infection?
Mucosal contact and entry
Systemic dissemination and organ colonization
Systemic clearance by serotype antibodies
Colonization of kidney tubules
What is the causative agent of Lyme disease?
Borrelia burgdorferi
What are the signs of Lyme disease?
Painful arthritis
Organ inflammation (esp. kidney)
What is the pathognomonic lesion of Lyme disease in humans?
Erythema chronicum migrans
What tick genus transmits Lyme disease?
Genus ixodes
In which tick organ are the infective Borrelia found?
Salivary glands
T or F:
Borrelia don't undergo vertical transmission.
True!
What is the main reservoir of B. burgdorferi?
White leg mouse