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25 Cards in this Set

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Q: Drug used in the Tx of Parkinson disease as well as in the Tx of prolactinoma
A: Bromocriptine; This ergot derivative acts as a D2 AGONIST, improving extrapyramidal fxn, and also INHIBITS THE RELEASE OF PROLACTIN from the pituitary gland; Unlike a similar agent, PERGOLIDE, bromocriptine maintains its effectiveness over time
Q: This long-acting amide-type local anesthetic can cause severe hypotension and arrythmias if inadvertently given IV
A: Bupivicaine; Local anesthetics BIND TO SODIUM CHANNELS in the OPEN AND INACTIVE STATE, SLOWING RECOVERY from depolarization 10- to 1000-fold
Q: Antidepressant used in the mgmt of nicotine withdrawal in pts seeking to stop cigarette smoking with minimal sedation
A: Bupropion; This second-generation HETEROCYCLIC ANTIDEPRESSANT inhibits the REUPTAKE OF NOREPI. Newer third-generation agents used for depression, such as VENLAFAXINE, inhibit the reuptake of SEROTONIN as well
Q: This agent is used in the Tx of partial and generalized seizures, and is the primary agent used in the Tx of neuralgia
A: Carbamazepine; INHIBITS SODIUM CHANNELS on neurons; its use may result in IDIOSYNCRATIC BLOOD DISORDERS such as ASPLASTIC ANEMIA and AGRANULOCYTOSIS
Q: Second-line Tx for schizophrenia that is better for the negative symptoms of the disease
A: Clozapine;ATYPICAL ANTIPSYCHOTIC, associated with AGRANULOCYTOSIS, that blocks the D4 RECEPTOR
Q: The only local anesthetic with vasoconstrictor activity
A: Cocaine; OTHER local anesthetics are ADMINISTERED WITH EPI to increase the duration of action and LOWER THE EFFECTIVE DOSE
Q: Used for Tx of anxiety and ethanol dependence; Also a primary agent in the Tx of status epilipticus
A: Diazepam; This long-acting, prototypic BENZODIAZEPINE binds to the GABA(A) RECEPTOR, increasing the FREQUENCY OF CHLORIDE CHANNEL OPENING
Q: Used in the Tx of Parkinson disease, it inhibits the enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)
A: Entacapone; This agent inhibits the conversion of LEVODOPA TO 3-O-METHYLDOPA in the periphery. A similar agent, TOLCAPONE, has been associated with ACUTE LIVER FAILURE
Q: Preferred agent in the Tx of absence seizures
A: Ethosuxamide; Postulated to fxn by INHIBITING T-TYPE CALCIUM CHANNELS in thalamic neurons. Use has been associated with the development of STEVENS-JOHNSON SYNDROME
Q: Opioid used in the induction of anesthesia, and also for postoperative analgesia
A: Fentanyl; If used in conjunction with DROPERIDOL and NITROUS OXIDE, it can produce a state of NEUROLEPTANESTHESIA, resulting in both ANALGESIA AND AMNESIA
Q: Popular drug used for the Tx of depression, it is the prototype of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI)
A: Fluoxetine; Common side effects of this and other SSRIs, such as SERTRALINE, PAROXETINE, AND CITALOPRAM, include headache, INSOMNIA, nausea, and SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION;These agents also are used in the mgmt of OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER [OCD], SOCIAL PHOBIAS, bulimia, and alcohol dependence
Q: This analog of GABA used in the Tx of partial seizures, as well as in the mgmt of peripheral neuropathy
A: Gabapentin; Other available agents for seizures include LAMOTRIGINE, which may cause life-threatening STEVENS-JOHNSON SYNDROME and epidermal necrolysis, and VIGABATRIN, which INHIBITS GABA TRANSAMINASES
Q: The most potent inhaled halogenated anesthetic, with the lowest minimal alveolar concentration (MAC), used for surgical anesthesia in children and asthmatics
A: Halothane; Rare but significant side effects include the development of MALIGNANT HYPERTHERMIA and FULMINANT HEPATITIS
Q: Dissociative anesthetic that causes hallucinations and disorientation on recovery
A: Ketamine; Side effects are due to an INCREASE IN CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW, and can be reduced by preoperative use of benzodiazepines
Q: Used in the Tx of Parkinson disease, this precursor crosses the BBB and is converted to dopamine
A: L-dopa (Levodopa); Administered with the DECARBOXYLASE INHIBITOR CARBIDOPA [which does not cross the BBB] to increase bioavailability and to LIMIT PERIPHERAL SIDE EFFECTS
Q: Mood stabilizer that is a first-line drug for the Tx of bipolar affective disorder
A: Lithium; INHIBITS the secondary messengers inositol triphosphate [IP3] and diacylglycerol [DAG] and causes TREMOR, HYPOTHYROIDISM, POLYDIPSIA, AND POLYURIA
Q: Amphetamine used in the mgmt of attention deficit disorder (ADD) and narcolepsy
A: Methylphenidate; INCREASES ALERTNESS and DECREASES APPETITE by stimulating the RELEASE OF CATECHOLAMINES;It is a controlled substance with ABUSE POTENTIAL
Q: Inhaled anesthetic that never reaches the level of surgical anesthesia without the addition of another agent, it is safe and the induction and recovery are extremely rapid
A: Nitrous Oxide; This gas has a HIGH MINIMAL ALVEOLAR CONCENTRATION [MAC] and a low blood/gas partition. It usually is ADMINISTERED WITH AN IV ANESTHETIC such as THIOPENTAL, and is commonly used in DENTAL PROCEDURES
Q: This older agent used in the Tx of depression increases levels of amine neurotransmitters by inhibiting their breakdown
A: Monamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI) – Phenelzine, Tranylcypromine, Isocarboxazid;Consumption of foods such as CHEESE, which contain TYRAMINE (an INDIRECT-ACTING SYMPATHOMIMETIC) while on MAOIs can result in HYPERTENSIVE CRISIS; If taken with SSRIs, life-threatening SEROTONIN SYNDROME can result
Q: Used as a sedative; also is a first line drug for tonic-clonic seizures in children and in the Tx pts with Crigler-Najjar syndrome type II
A: Phenobarbital; As a long acting, prototypic BARBITUATE, it binds to GABA RECEPTORS, increasing the DURATION OF CHLORIDE CHANNEL OPENING with neuronal INHIBITION
Q: Drug used for the Tx of partial and tonic-clonic seizures and status epilipticus, as well as being a class IB antiarrhythmic
A: Phenytoin; Side effects include GINGIVAL HYPERPLASIA, HIRSUTISM, ANEMIA, AND BIRTH DEFECTS, because it INTERFERES WITH FOLATE ABSORPTION
Q: This agent has the largest number of extrapyramidal side effects of all the atypical antipsychotics
A: Risperidone; ATYPICAL ANTIPSYCHOTICS block the D2 and 5-HT2 RECEPTORS, contributing to HIGH SEDATION. More Recently introduced agents such as OLANZAPINE have NO EXTRAPYRAMIDAL SIDE EFFECTS
Q: Newly available agent used in the Tx of Parkinson disease that forestalls the use of levodopa
A: Ropirinole; This agent has a lower incidence of postural hypotension, dyskinesia, vomiting, and hallucination, unlike most dopamine agonists. It is NOT AN ERGOT DERIVATIVE; A similar agent, PRAMIPEXOL, also used
Q: Inhibits the degradation of dopamine in the CNS and is used as an adjuvant to levodopa in the Tx of Parkinson disease
A: Selegiline;Inhibits MAO-B, which selectively degrades DOPAMINE
Q: Ultra-short-acting barbiturate used IV for the induction of surgical anesthesia
A: Thiopental; Due to its HIGH LIPID SOLUBILITY, this agent enters the CNS within 1 minute; It can be used only for SHORT SURGICAL PROCEDURES, because it RAPIDLY REDISTRIBUTES to other tissues