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21 Cards in this Set

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Extremely short-acting agent (15-20 seconds) administered IV for the control of atrioventricular (AV) nodal arrhythmias
Adenosine (The side effects of FLUSHING and HYPOTENSION are short-lived as well, and do not limit the use of this agent)
Long-acting class III antiarrhthmic associated with pulmonary fibrosis, thyroid dysfunction, and corneal microdeposits
Amiodarone (This agent also blocks sodium channels such as the class IA antiarrhythmics)
Used for the treatment of congestive heart failure, this agent contains two isomers, one with nonselective beta blocking activity and one with alpha-1 blocking activity
Carvedilol (LABETALOL has similar properties and has four diastereomers, the RR enantiomer is a nonselective beta blocker, and the SR enantomer is an alpha-1 blocker)
Bile acid-binding resins used in the managment of hyperlipidemia
Cholestyramine, Colestipol (Bind bile acids, preventing enterohepatic recycling, thus diverting hepatic efforts to renew bile acids, instead of producing plasma lipids)
These agents functions function to slow conduction velocity by slowing the rate and rise of the action potential
Class IA Antiarrhythmica (Quinidine/Procainamide/Disopyramide) (These agents help maintain sinoatral [SA]rhythm after cardiococonversion for atrial fibllation, and may cause torsade de pointes arrhythmias. Quinidine may cause cinchonism, a type of poisoning that casues headache, vertigo, and tinnitus.)
Function to decrease the action potential duration by shortening the repolarization phase
Class IB Antiarrhythmics (Lidocaine/Mexileine/Tocainide/Phenytoin) (These agents are used for the treatment of ventricular arrhythmias, as well as for digitoxin-induced arrhythmias)
Used for the treatment of refractory ventircular arrhythmias, as well as for rapid atrial arrhythmias associated with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome
Class IC Antiarrhytmics (Flecainided/Propafenone) (Function to slow conduction velocity in the atrial and ventricular cells but do not affect the action potential. They typically are used as a last resort, as their use is associated with drug-induced arrhythmias)
These agents decrease the automaticity of the pacemaker tissue of the heart, resulting in prolonged atrioventricular (AV) conduction and slower heart rate
Class II Antiarrhytmics (Propranolol/Esmolol) (These beta blockers decrease cAMP levels, resulting in reduced sodium and calcium currents. these agents are not to be used in cases of congestived heart failure)
Used for the treatment of recurrent ventricular arrhythmias, many of these agents can precipitate torsade de pointe arrhythmias
Class III Antiarrhythmics (Sotalol/Ibutilide/Bretylium/Amiodarone) (These agents prolong the action potential by blocking potassium channels.)
Used for atrial arrhythmias and nodal re-entry, as well as hypertension and angina, these agents inhibit Ca2++ voltage channels
Class IV Antiarrhythmics (Verapamil/Diltiaszem) (Note: nifedipine has a similar mechanism of action, but it is used only for hypertension and angina
Centrally-acting alpha-2 agonist that reduces sympathetic autonomic nervous system outflow, resulting in decreased blood pressure
Clonidine (a major side effect of this drug is REBOUND HYPERTENSION, in the event of ABRUPT DISCONTINUATION)
Used in the management of congestive heart failure, these drugs are reversible inhibitors of Na+/K+ ATPase
Digitoxin Digoxin (Unlike digitoxin, digoxin is shorter-acting and excreted by the kidneys, patients with low K+, low Mg2+, high Na+, or high Ca2++ can experience arrhythmias with either agent)
Agents that decrease triglycerides dramatically by stimulating lipoprotein lipase
Gemfibrozil Fenofibrate Clofibrate (Clofibrate has been associated with gallstones and hepatobiliary neoplasms)
Antihypertensive drug that blocks the release of norepinephrine by displacing it from intracellular vesicles
Guanethidine (Side effects include serious orthostatic hypotension
Used for the treatment of ventrcular arrhythmias, especially follwing myocardial infarction, because it works only on ischemic tissue
Lidocaine (this class IB antiarrhthmic has little effect on ECG OF NORMAL [NONISCHEMIC] HEART TISSUE. It is given intravenously, although similar agents [mexiletine and tocainde] are given orally.)
This alpha-2 agonist decreases adrenergic outflow from the CNS, resulting in decreased blood pressure
Methyldopa (This drug can haptenate red blood cell proteins, resulting in an autoimmune hemolytic anemia)
Lipid-lowering agent that causes cutaneous flushing, which can be avoided by administering concurrently with aspirin
Niacin (Directly reduces the secretion of VLDLS from and apolipoprotein synthesis by the liver, while increasing HDLs)
Causes an increases in cGMP within vascular smooth muscle, resulting in decreased preload to the heart and decreased blood pressure
Nitroglycerin (Administered as a sublingual patch to decrease first-pass metabolism
Antihyperlipidemic agent that may prevent atherosclerosis by acting as an antioxidant
Probucol (Rarely used for the treatment of hyperlipidemia because it DECREASES HDLS AS WELL AS LDLs, may be efficacious in PREVENTING RESTENOSIS after angioplasty)
This rarely used antihypertensive agent blocks the storage and release of catecholamines and serotonin from neurons
Reserpine (The drug readily enters the CNS and can cause suicidal depression and Parkinsonian symptoms)
Inhibits the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol synthesis, HMG-CoA reductase, resulting in dramatically decreased LDL levels
Statins (Lovastatin/Pravastatin/Simvastatin/Atorvastatin) (May cause ELEVATED LIVER ENZYMES, MYOSITIS with INCREASED CREATINE KINASE from skeletal muscle, and, rarely, RHABDOMYOLYSIS)