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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
polymers of monomers called amino acids
Nucleic Acids
polymers of nucleotides that form DNA and RNA
hydrophobic and hydrophillic properties
polymers of sugars present in cell walls
consists of two or more atoms chemically bonded to one another
Covalent bond
bond between atoms formed by a shared pair of electrons
Hydrogen bond
weak bond formed between hydrogen atoms and electronegative elements like oxygen or nitrogen
Glycosidic Bonds
Hold together monomers that make up polysaccharides
Complex Polysaccharides
When polysaccharides combine with other macromolecules such as proteins and lipids
List Three weak bonds and their properties
1) Van der walls forces (attraction at close range)

2) Ionic bonds (electrostatic in nature)

3) Hydrophobic interactions (tight association in polar regions)
Five most important elements in making up macromolecules and organic compounds
1) Carbon

2) Hydrogen

3) Oxygen

4) Nitrogen

5) Sulfur
Three properties of water
1) Excellent Solvent

2) Polar compound

3) Outstanding cohesiveness
Possess both hydrophobic and hydrophillic properities, as in lipids
Simple Lipids
consist of only the fatty acid chain(s) bonded to the glycerol molecule (ex. Triglyceride)
Complex Lipids
contain additional elements such as nitrogen and sulfur attached to glycerol component
monomers of nucleic acids
Examples of Polynucleotides
DNA (Double Stranded), RNA (single Stranded)
Three components of Nucleotide
1) 5-carbon sugar

2) Nitrogen base (attached to C1 carbon via glycosidic bond)

3) molecule of phosphate (PO4) (attached to C5 carbon)
Structurally how does DNA differ from RNA?
DNA has an H attached to the C2 carbon, while RNA has an OH
Phosphodiester bond
links C5 carbon phophate group to C3 carbon of another nucleotide
Five components of an Amino Acid
1) Central alpha carbon

2) Carboxyl (COOH) group

3) Amino (NH2) group

4) R or functional group

5) Hydrogen attached to C
Peptide bonds
link together amino acids

carboxyl carbon of one amino acid is bound to the amino nitrogen of another amino acid
Functional Groups
give amino acids their distinct properties

provide a means for cells to produce large number of diverse, unique proteins
Primary Structure
linear chain of amino acids covalently bonded to one another
Secondary Structure
involves interaction between the R groups of the amino acids in the polypeptide or atoms in the peptide bonds

involves hydrogen bonding to a large degree
Tertiary Structure
involves folding of the molecule and formation of exposed regions
Quaternary Structure
Seen in proteins that consist of two or more polypeptide chains
is the destruction of the protein's higher order structure

can be a way of destroying microbes