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14 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Railway supported by British
Done in 1856, British supported, linked Alexandria and Cairo
Suez Canal construction
Concession given to French and St. Simonian Ferdinand Lesseps. Sultan approves in 1866, opens in 1869.
Canal is microcosm for modern age
-Engineering skills
-Steam power machinery
-Resources of capitalism
-Export oriented economy
-Dedication of a St. Simonian
-Opened to all nations after convention in 1888, Intended Convention (in peace and war)
Socio-Economic Egyptian reforms
-Part of reform in Egypt after Civil War, Cotton cultivation.
-Consultative Ass. of delegates in 1866
-State system of education (start of women's movement)
-Institut Egyptien, museum, national library, pride for Egyptian history.
What's happening to Brits/Eur/Germ
-Over 1/4 shares of Canal
-Queen is empress of India, want it for access
-France dealing w/Tunisia in 1881
-Germany working on railways in Istanbul/Baghdad/Hijaz
Egypt's internal situation
-Heavily in debt to Egypt
-Ismai'l deposed, replaced by son Tawfid.
-Egyptian national movement against Khedive, head by Arabi
British occupation
-Arabi defeated, exiled to Ceylon
-Ottomans complacent
-Lord Cromer is Consul General 1883-1907
-French hostility to occipation of Egypt Entente Cordiale
-1914: Britain declares Egypt a protectorate abolishing Ottoman over Egypt
British national Movement (3 phases)
1. Muh 'Ali's (Alawi) Dynasty. 1st International Reform then sided w/Britain.
2. Trad. Leaderships ('Ulama/Notables): Controlled by Shadowy consultative assemblies supporting the govt.
3. Nationalists
3 Types of Nationalists
1. Popular movement representing the masses like Arabi
2. Islamic movement, pan-Islamism. al-Afghani and 'Abduh. Counted on Ottoman support. Islam v. West.
3. Middle class nationalist parties
Mustafa Kamil
-Middle Class Nationalist Party.
-Patriotic Party: Hizb al-Watani in 1907.
-Cooperation w/Ottomans and France. Encouraged by Russo-Japanese war.
Ahmad Lufti al-Sayyid
People's Party (Hizb al-Ummah).
-1907, encouraged by liberals advocating reform. Changed name to Wafd Party. Saad Zaghul was big until 1952 when overthrown by Nasser.
Constitutional party
Mouthpiece of of Khedive (Hizb al-Islah) in 1907
Dinshaway incident of 1906
-Retirement of Cromer in 1907
-Japan's treaty over Russia in 1905
-Duma controlled attempt at a revolt
Weakness of nationalist patroitism in Egypt
-Limited followers (mostly intillectuals) through newspapers, but only 20% could read.
-No social or econ platform to engage masses
-Econ Middle Class crucial for natl movements, alien in Egypt had own interests
-Borgeois party failed to enlist support of caliph/sultan or France