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27 Cards in this Set

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Branchial Arch 1
Cartilage
Meckel's Cartilage:
Mandible, Malleus, Incus, spheno-mandibular ligament.
Branchial Arch 1
Muscle
Muscle of mastication: Masseter, temporalis, lateral and medial pterygoids
mylohyloids, anterior belly of digastric, tensor tympani, tensor veli palatini, anterior 2/3 of tongue.
Branchial Arch 1
Innervation
CN V2 and V3
Branchial Arch 1
Pathology
Treacher Collins Syndrome:
mandibular hyperplasia, facial abnormalities
Branchial Arch 1
Arteries
Maxillary artery (branch of external carotid)
Branchial Arch 2
Cartilage
Reichert's cartilage:
Stapes, Styloid Process, lesser horn of hyoid bone, stylo-hyloid ligament
Branchial Arch 2
Muscles
Muscles of facial expression, stapedius, stylohyloid, and posterior belly of digastric
Branchial Arch 2
Innervation:
CN VII
Branchial Arch 2
Arteries:
Stapedial Artery, Hyoid Artery
Branchial Arch 3
Cartilage:
greater horn of hyoid
Branchial Arch 3:
Muscles:
Stylopharyngeus (think of which nerve its innervated by)
Branchial Arch 3:
Innervation
CN IX
Branchial Arch 3:
Pathology
congenital pharyngocutaneous fistula: persistance of cleft and pouch --> fistula between tonsillar area, cleft in lateral neck
Branchial Arch 4-6
Cartilage
thyroid, cricoid cartilage, arytenoids, corniculate,cuneiform
Branchial Arch 4
Muscles
most pharyngeal constrictors, cricothyroid, levator veli palatini
Branchial Arch 6
Muscles
all intrinsic muscles of larynx except cricothyroid
Branchial Arch 4:
Innervation:
CN X. superior laryngeal branch- swallowing
Branchial Arch 6:
Innervation:
CN X. recurrent laryngeal branch- speaking
Branchial Arch 3 and 4 develop into:
form posterior 1/3 of tongue
Branchial cleft 1:
external auditory meatus
Branchial cleft 2-4 derivatives:
make temporary cervical sinuses, which are then destroyed by proliferation of 2nd arch mesenchyme. if the cleft persists: branchial cleft cyst in lateral neck
Branchial Pouch 1:
middle ear, eustachian tube, mastoid air cells.
contribute to endoderm-lined structures.
Branchial Pouch 2:
epithelial lining of palatine tonsil
Branchial Pouch 3:
dorsal wings- inferior parathyroids
ventral wings- thymus.
these end up BELOW the 4th pouch structures
Branchial Pouch 4:
dorsal wings: superior parathyroids
Branchial Pouch 3 and 4
Pathology:
aberrant development of 3rd and 4th pouches lead to DiGeorge syndrome:
t-cell deficiency ( because of thymic aplasia) and hypocalcemia (because of failure of parathyroid to develop)
MEN 2A:
multiple endocrine neoplasms:
mutation of germline RET (neural crest cells)
adrenal medulla- pheochromocytoma
parathyroid tumor- 3rd and 4th branchial pouch
parafollicular cells (medullary thryoid cancer)- 4th and 5th branchial pouch.