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15 Cards in this Set

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Functionally, the brainstem can be conceptualized in what 4 groups?
1. Cranial Nerve Nuclei
2. Long Tracts (sensory & motor)
3. Cerebellar Circuitry
4. Reticular Formation
Brainstem terminology:
What and where is the basis?
The basis is the most ventral portion of the brain stem where corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts course through.
Arrange these terms in dorsal to ventral order:
Tegmentum, Basis, Tectum
Tectum - "roof", dorsal to aqueduct
Tegmentum - "covering", ventral to aqueduct
Basis - most ventral portion
The primary pyramidal decussation occurs in which brainstem region?
cervicomedullary junction
Bilateral lesions of the ventral portions of the pons, sparing midbrain and more caudal structures can result in what syndrome?
Locked In Syndrome - due to lesioning of bilateral corticospinal tracts but sparing of sensory pathways - patient can't move but has intact sensation/cognition
The rostral reticular formation is generally responsible for what functions?
alertness/arousal - proximity to diencephalic nuclei & forebrain
The caudal reticular formation is generally responsible for what functions?
autonomic motor & reflex functions - proximity to cranial nerve nuclei & spinal cord
Brainstem ischemia in what brainstem region is a classic cause of coma?
pontomesencephalic reticular formation, (i.e. upper brainstem reticular formation)
Primary brainstem dopaminergic projection systems are located in which region?
midbrain - ventral tegmental & substantia nigra
Raphe nuclei contain neurons rich in what neurotransmitter?
Serotonin
Wallenberg's syndrome is caused by lateral medullary infarcts and therefore motor involvement is or is not prominent?
motor findings are NOT prominent as medial medulla carries pyramidal tract and is spared.
The main vascular supply for the midbrain is the ...
PCA
posterior cerebral artery
The main vascular supply for the pons is the ...
Basilar artery primarily but also anterior inferior cerebellar and lateral pontine arteries
The inferior and superior colliculi are located in what brainstem region?
Midbrain
Sleep promoting systems are thought to be located in which brain stem region?
Medullary reticular formation