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32 Cards in this Set

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What is the general function of GSAs?
Perception of touch, pain, temperature
Examples: Trigeminal nerve [V]; facial nerve [VII]; vagus nerve [X]
What is the general function of GVAs?
Sensory input from viscera
Examples: Glossopharyngeal nerve [IX]; vagus nerve [X]
What is the general function of SSAs?
Smell, taste, vision, hearing and balance
Examples: Olfactory nerve [I]; optic nerve [II]; facial nerve [VII]; vestibulocochlear nerve [VIII]; glossopharyngeal nerve [IX]; vagus nerve [X]
What is the general function of GSEs?
Motor innervation to skeletal (voluntary) muscles
Examples: Oculomotor nerve [III]; trochlear nerve [IV]; abducent nerve [VI]; hypoglossal nerve [XII]
What is the general function of GVEs?
Motor innervation to smooth muscle, heart muscle, and glands
Examples: Oculomotor nerve [III]; facial nerve [VII]; glossopharyngeal nerve [IX]; vagus nerve [X]
What is the general function of BEs?
Motor innervation to skeletal muscles derived from pharyngeal arch mesoderm
Examples: Trigeminal nerve [V]; facial nerve [VII]; glossopharyngeal nerve [IX]; vagus nerve [X]; accessory nerve [XI]
What cranial nerves contain a GSA component?
Trigeminal nerve [V]; facial nerve [VII]; vagus nerve [X]
What cranial nerves contain a GVA component?
Glossopharyngeal nerve [IX]; vagus nerve [X]
What cranial nerves contain a SSA component?
Olfactory nerve [I]; optic nerve [II]; facial nerve [VII]; vestibulocochlear nerve [VIII]; glossopharyngeal nerve [IX]; vagus nerve [X]
What cranial nerves contain a GSE component?
Oculomotor nerve [III]; trochlear nerve [IV]; abducent nerve [VI]; hypoglossal nerve [XII]
What cranial nerves contain a GVE component?
Oculomotor nerve [III]; facial nerve [VII]; glossopharyngeal nerve [IX]; vagus nerve [X]
What cranial nerves contain a BE component?
Trigeminal nerve [V]; facial nerve [VII]; glossopharyngeal nerve [IX]; vagus nerve [X]; accessory nerve [XI]
Describe the afferents / efferents of CN I
Olfactory Nerve
1. SSA: Smell
Describe the afferents / efferents of CN II
Optic Nerve
1. SSA: Vision
Describe the afferents / efferents of CN III
Occulomotor Nerve
1. GSE-innervates levator palpebrae superioris, superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, and inferior oblique muscles
2. GVE-innervates sphincter pupillae for pupillary constriction; ciliary muscles for accommodation of the lens for near vision
Describe the afferents / efferents of CN IV
Trochlear Nerve
1. GSE: Innervates superior oblique muscle
Describe the afferents / efferents of CN V
Trigeminal Nerve
1. BE & GSA-sensory from:
ophthalmic division [V1]-eyes, conjunctiva, orbital contents, nasal cavity, frontal sinus, ethmoid sinus, upper eyelid, dorsum of nose, anterior part of scalp;
maxillary nerve [V2]-dura in anterior and middle cranial fossae, nasopharynx, palate, nasal cavity, upper teeth, maxillary sinus, skin covering the side of the nose, lower eyelid, cheek, upper lip;
mandibular division [V3]-skin of lower face, cheek, lower lip, ear, external acoustic meatus, temporal fossa, anterior two-thirds of tongue, lower teeth, mastoid air cells, mucous membranes of cheek, mandible, dura in middle cranial fossa BE-innervates temporalis, masseter, medial and lateral pterygoids, tensor tympani, tensor veli palatini, anterior belly of digastric, and mylohyoid muscles
Describe the afferents / efferents of VI
Abducent Nerve
1. GSE: Innervates lateral rectus muscle
Describe the afferents / efferents of VII
Facial Nerve
1. GSA-sensory from external acoustic meatus, skin posterior to ear
2. SSA-taste from anterior two-thirds of tongue
3. GVE-innervates lacrimal gland, submandibular and sublingual salivary glands, and mucous membranes of nasal cavity, hard and soft palates
4. BE-innervates muscles of face (muscles of facial expression) and scalp derived from the second pharyngeal arch, and stapedius, posterior belly of digastric, stylohyoid muscles
Describe the afferents / efferents of VIII
Vestibulocochlear nerve
1. SSA: Vestibular division-balance
Cochlear division-hearing
Describe the afferents / efferents of IX
Glossopharyngeal nerve
1. GVA-sensory from carotid body and sinus, posterior one-third of tongue, palatine tonsils, upper pharynx, and mucosa of middle ear and pharyngotympanic tube
2. SSA-taste from posterior one-third of tongue
3. GVE-innervates parotid salivary gland
4. BE-innervates stylopharyngeus muscle
Describe the afferents / efferents of X
Vagus nerve
1. GSA-sensory from skin posterior to ear and external acoustic meatus, and dura in posterior cranial fossa
2. GVA-sensory from aortic body chemoreceptors and aortic arch baroreceptors, mucous membranes of pharynx, larynx, esophagus, bronchi, lungs, heart, and abdominal viscera of the foregut and midgut
3. SA-taste from the epiglottis
4. GVE-innervates smooth muscle and glands in the pharynx, larynx, thoracic viscera, and abdominal viscera of the foregut and midgut
5. BE-innervates one tongue muscle (palatoglossus), muscles of soft palate (except tensor veli palatini), pharynx (except stylopharyngeus), and larynx
Describe the afferents / efferents of XI
Accessory nerve
1. BE: Innervates sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles
Describe the afferents / efferents of XII
Hypoglossal nerve
1. GSE: Innervates hyoglossus, genioglossus, and styloglossus muscles and all intrinsic muscles of the tongue
What are "Association Fibres"?
Association Fibres connect areas within the same hemisphere
What are "Commissural Fibres"?
Commissural Fibres - Originate from cell bodies in the cortex of one hemisphere, cross the midline and synapse with neurons in corresponding areas of cortex of the other heisphere.
e.g. corpus callosum
What are "Projection Fibres"?
Projection fibres project to and from the cortex
In very simple terms - what does the Basal Ganglia do?
The basal ganglia is involved in the modulation of voluntary motor activity.
Identify all the cranial nerves that are attached to the medulla
IX, X, XI, XII
anterior to olive: XII
posterior to olive: XI, X, IX
Identify the cranial nerves that are attached to the pons
V, VI, VII, VIII
Pontocerebellar angle: VII, VIII
VI: Groove btw medulla and pons (medial)
V: Basal pons
Identify the cranial nerves that are attached to the midbrain
III, IV
III: emerges anteriorly in interpedunclar fossa, on medial side of the crus cerebri
IV: Emerges posteriorly, just caudal to the inferior colliculus
Identify the cranial nerves located on the inferior surface of the brain
I, II
I: Bipolar olfactory receptor cells, olfactory bulb and olfactory tract
II: Optic nerve, optic chiasm and optic tract.