Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
3 types of tolerance
Metabolic-the # of enzymes needed to break down alcohol increases, therefore metabolized more quickly,
Cellular-change receptor number, change release of transmitter
Behavioral (learned)body starts compensating, learn to cope while drunk.
Name three sedative/hypnotics and two of their functions.
Alcohol, barbiturates, and benzodiazepines. They cause tolerance and cross-tolerance.
Why are abused drugs theorized to act on dopamine neurons.
Because rats will no longer press the bar for stimulation if the dop system is blocked; abused drugs cause a release of dop, and drugs that that block dop receptors or decrease availability of dop are not abused.
Why is it difficult for drugs to get into the brain?
There is the blood brain barrier, tight junctions with no gaps, and astrocytes.
Psychomotor activation
increased behavioral and cognitive activity, feel energetic and in control.
Competitive Antagonist
Blocks endogenous chemical from it's receptor site by fitting in it but not activating it.
Increased behavioral response to the same dose of a drug. Opposite of tolerance. Develops with occasional use as opposed to repeated use with tolerance.
Where must drugs go to reach their targets?
In/out of the blood to the extracellular fluid.
Spanagle and Weiss
Drugs can be rewarding in the absence of dopamine.
Alcohol and barbiturates affect the GABA receptor, which causes what?
An increase of Cl ions which depolarizes the inside of the cell membrane and makes it less likely to produce an AP. This inhibitory effect decreases a neuron's rate of firing.
Dependence hypothesis
habitual users of a drug experience psychological or physiological withdrawal symptoms when the drugs wear off so they get hooked.
Name three places that has no BBB and their functions
The pineal gland, allows entry of chems that affects day/night cycles; the pituitary gland, allows entry of chems that affect pituit. hormones; area postrema, allows entry of toxic subs that induce vomiting.
Ex supporting alcohol myopia
Drunk driving, date rape, aggression
Ex of competitve antagonist
Curare and Rabies which block the ACh receptor.
Most addictive drugs cause the release of what neurons into what structure?
Dopamine into the nucleus accumbens of basal ganglia.
How do drugs get into the brain?
They pass through the endothelial membrane bc the capillaries in the body are leaky and have few tight junctions. Also, small uncharged molecules can pass through these caps and reach the brain.
Factors that could account for drug abuse
Genetic makeup (disputed) and those who are high risk takers.
Examples of narcotic analgesics?
Opium--> codeine, morphine; heroin
Time-out theory
Suggests our behavior while intoxicated is a time out from the rules of daily life.
What is the difference betw drugs and psychoactive drugs?
A drug is a chemical that causes any desired change in the body whereas a PA drug alters mood,thought, behavior and acts through the CNS.
Neurotoxicity--ecstasy, cocaine, alcohol
Caused degeneration in rodents but didnt grow back in monkeys. Ecstacy (MDMA) found to be toxic to neurons.Cocaine-increased chance of stroke, epilepsy,memory probs. Alcohol-vitamin deficiency, memory probs
Indirect Antagonist
Can do any of these: block synthesis, block release, block Ca channels, increase enzyme breakdown, interfere with vesicles (leaky crowd out NT)
Alcohol myopia
Tendency for pple under the influence to respond to a restricted set of immediate cues while ignoring remote potential consequences.
What are the routes of administration for drugs?
Oral, Injection, Inhalation, and others (mucous membrane)
Disinhibition theory
Alcohol depresses learned inhibitions based on reasoning and judgment in the cortex and doesnt affect our more primitive instincts.
Effects of opiates?
Euphoria (mimics endorphins), analgesia (pain reliever), constipation, slow breathing, pre-death euphoria, vomiting
Robinson and Berridge: Incentive-sensitization theory
Wanting- desire for drug
Liking-enjoying the pleasure for the drug. Druggies may not like the drug anymore, but still have intense wanting for it.
Indirect agonist
Increases the effect of the NT without direct activation.
James Old and Peter Milner
First to discover a reward center in rats called the intracranial self stimulation or brain stimulation reward. Mesolimbic dopamine system
Ex of stimulants
Cocaine and amphetamine (both =dopamine agonists that can cause symptoms of schizophrenia)
3 stages of addiction
Pleasure, associative learning, incentive salience (cues that are desired).
Ex of direct agonist
Black widow spider. Its venom promotes the release of ACh
Increase activity of neurons, stimulate behav, high doses=irritability, psychotic eps
What kinds of effects do drugs have on a neurotransmitter? In what places?
It can increase or decrease the effectiveness of an NT by affecting its synthesis, storage, release, receptor interaction, inactivation, reuptake, degradation.
Name 3 individual differences that vary ones response to drugs?
Age, size, and gender
Direct agonist
A synthetic form that fits the receptor and activates it.