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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Mapping out the relationship between shared bone structures across different species suggests there is a
Evolutionary explanation.
Having camlofloage matching a animal to a surrounding to provide protection from predators is an example of
Functional Explanation
If a person believes that horomones released at menstrual cycle
Functional explanation.
Increased testerone level causes area of brain to increase in size and is enlarged in breeding males
To produce the approriate song, the bird has genes to sing and then must hear the approriate song during a particular point in development.
There are species-specific songs they are similar patterns amongst different species and different from others. inficating possible common ancestor.
Some attract demales and others deter competition from males.
Monism VS. Dualism
Monism-only one kind of exsistence. (all mind/or all body)
Dualism- mind is fundamentally indepedent and different of physical body.
Monism Terms (5)
Mentalism-only mind exsists.
Materialism-only material exsists.
Ephiphenomomenon: a physical world is a fundamental kind of exsistence, but the mind is a by-product.
Emergent Property: mind is a property of the organization of cells.
Entity: mind is a special property of physical matter. 2 different ways to talk about the same thing.
Dualism Terms (3)
Interactionalism: mind and body interact, each controlling each other.

Parallelism: activities of mind and brain agree with each other co-occur.

Blueness Issue. Sherrington" can explain the way the brain percieves but not the experience.
Nervous System is composed of what?
Central-comprimised of brain and spinal cord. enclosed within the skill and spinal column.
Peripheral- comprimised of nerve tissue located outside of the brain and spinal cord.
Most basic units of the nervous system are known as
Perihperal System is composed of
Somatic-Voluntary muscle
1) Sympathetic: activates
2)Parasympthaetic: inhibits
Central Nervous system is composed of
Spinal Cord and Brain
Neurons: (3)
receieve and transmit information to other cells.

Glia: don't transmit info over long distances but preform other tasks.

100 billions of neurons.
Glia cells are ____ times more than neurons, but ____ the size; they both occupy the same amount of _____
10 times
1/10 the size
same amount of space
Characteristics of Neurons
Size: from nonexsistant to about a meter. axon determines length.

Shape: branching determines connections with other neurons. dendrites grow, extend, and retract.

Function: related shape.
Long distance= increased shape
Short Distances: short neuron.
Why are neurons special?
(9 things)
Dont regenerate
Dont exsist outside the nervous system
send electro-chemical signals over a long distance
Connections between neurons are dependent on experience after birth.
Influence other cells.
They use a very small electrical signal to do a big job.
Continue to be modified throughout our lives.
Denser the network increases with age.
What are the parts of a neuron? (know the location)
(9 things)
Soma Cell Body
Axon Hillock
Mylin Sheath
Nodes of Ranvier
Synaptic Clef
Terminal Button
What is the function of:

2) Axon

3)Axon Hillock

4)Myelin Sheath

5)Nodes of Ranvier


7)Terminal Buttons
Increase area avaliable for synapses connections, and acitivity of nervous system

2) Axon: sends messages to other neurons.

3)Axon Hillock: initial segment of axon. Decides whether there is enough action potential to be generated or not.

4)Myelin Sheath-Insulation on neurons to improve efficency of signal of fatty tissue.

5)Gap between sheaths, permits the regeneration of AP. If it is missing, AP wont jump.

6)branching of the axon permits on axon to communicate with many synapses.

7)Terminal Buttons: hold vesicles for NT release across the presynaptic membrane.
What is a synapse?
it is the space between 2 cells, 20-40 nm. the manner in which the electrical signal will travel. NT travel through space and bind to the # of receptors (post-synpatic centre) receptors are NT SPECIFIC.
What are the types of neurons?


What is a unipolar neuron?
one axon is attached to its soma; one branch. receives sensory information, the other sends information to CNS.
Found is inervertbrae animals.
Branching at one end.
In vertabrates-found in the aunomic nervous system (sympathetic/parasympathetic nervous system)
What is a bipolar neuron?
One axon and one dendrite is attached to its soma and found in the retina. Very specialized.
(branching at both ends)
What is a multipolar neuron?
One axon and many dendrites.
Most common type.
Tend to look the same
General term given to many types of neurons that fit this defintion.
What is a pseudounipolar neuron?
receive information from the skin. (sensory, touch)
Type of BIPOLAR cell.
In the embryo: start as bipolar, through development alters the way they look the 2 processes. 1) the axon and dendrite fuse. 2) splits into two different axons.
ie: one goes to the skin. one goes to spinal cord.
Different from the other three types of neurons.
How do multipolar neurons differ?
Differ according to:
# of dendrites
length of dendrite branches
Intricacy of dendrite branching.
All these factors affect shape and appearance.
What are the types of multipolar neurons?
Granule-smell, part of hippocampus, very numerous. account for 1/2 neurons in CNS. (in terms of shape)
Motor-attach to muscle fibers.
Pyrimidal-cortex (frontal and occiptal lobes)fairly long need to transmit over long a triangle. connect to different layers of cortex. and subcortical structures. ie : basal ganaglia: helps body move
Stellar: spinal cord/perihperal nervous system. long and branched.
Pukanaje: cerebellum. all of the soma of this cell is found within the PERKINJE layer. Some of the largest cells within the human brain. Only structures that have axons leave the cerebellum to interact with other structures. very dense branching.
What are interneurons?
Do not communicate with other areas of the brain. Stay within the thalamus. (lots of dense branching) short b/c dont need to communicate over long distances.
How do we classify neurons by function?
Sensory: CN system. carry information from the peripherary to the CNS. pseudobipolar neuron.

Motor: outside the CN system, send to muscle fiber by electrical impluse telling muscle what to do. ex: unipolar neuron.