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84 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
coevolutionary associations
when plants and animals rely on each other and subsequently change over time based on this relationship
Angiosperms use animals in 3 ways
protection, pollination, and fruit/seed dispersal
outbreeding vs. inbreeding
out: uniting sperm and egg from genetically different plants of same species; in: self-fertilization
outbreeding is better than inbreeding because
genetic diversity
Plants attract animals for pollination by:
rewards, scent &/or colors (nectar guides) (bracts)
abiotic dispersal
using wind or water
biotic dispersal
animals poop seeds out, fruits change colors, dry fruits attach to body of an animal (external dispersal)
earliest fossils
prokaryotic cell ingested by another cell and living there as an organelle
secondary endosymbiosis
endosymbiosis of a eukaryotic cell by another eukaryote
5 types of protists
euglenids, dinoflagellates, stramenopiles, red algae, chlorophytes
autotrophic, contractile vacuole, eyespot, pellicle, chloroplasts from secondary endosymbiosis, chlorophyll a+b, E storage= paramylon
accessory pigment= peridinin, chloroplasts from secondary endosymbiosis( happened twice), E storage= starch, celluslose plates- 2 perpendicular grooves with flagella, some bioluminescent, algal bloom, red tide
2 flagella: 1 smooth, 1 "hairy", chloroplasts from secondary endosymbiosis of red alga, chlorophyll a & c and fucoxanthin, E storage= laminarin
diatoms (stramenopile)
2 silica "glass shells", make insecticides and filters
golden algae (stramenopile)
often form colonies, can have cellulose or silica
brown algae (stramenopile)
multicellular "seaweeds", cellulose embedded in matrix of algin, **biggest protist group**
red algae
lack flagella, sister to green plants, primary endosymbiosis, accesory pigment: phycobilins, E storage= Floridean starch, cell walls= cellulose embedded in polysaccharides, ex: agar
green algae, sister to streptophytes, primary endosymbiosis, chlorophyll a&b, E storage= starch, cellulose cell wall
heterotrophic organisms that are sister to animals (not plants)
dominant generation in fungi
heterotrophic (fungi)
absorptive mode of nutrition
fungi are mainly:
saprophytes (absorb nutrients from dead stuff), also parasites, some symbiotic, some predatory
fungi cell wall
fungi E storage
fungi body
mycelium (mass of multicellular filaments- hyphae)
Do fungi have vascular tissue?
what kind of spores on fungi?
Abundant spores; asexual and sexual; sexual spores used to characterize each group
symbiotic fungi on/in plant roots
mycorrhizal fungi
fungi inside roots
endomycorrhizae (90% of all plant species)
fungi on outside of roots
Fungal groups
Chytrids, Zygomycetes, Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes, Lichens
primitive fungi, has zoospores
black bread molds, for zygosporangium-> meiosis-> ascospores
sac fungi, septa in hyphae w/ simple spore, forms ascus-> meiosis-> ascospores
examples of ascomycetes
ergot- hallucinogen, LSD
brewer's yeast
mushrooms, dikaryotic filaments (contain 2 different types of nuclei) with specialized cross walls that control flow of organelles (dolipore septa)
sexual part of mushroom life cycle
2 nuclei-> basidium-> meiosis-> basidiospores
reproductive structure that bears basidia
specific area on the mushroom that bear basidia
symbiotic association between fungus and alga, fungus= house, alga= food-maker
lichens reproduce by ____ reproduction by ___
asexual reproduction by propagules
3 types of lichens
crustose= "crusty"
fruticose= "bushy"
foliose= "leafy"
shared derived charatres of ALL green plants:
Chlorophyll a+b
2 anterior flagella
streptophytes characteristics
cell division w/ phragmoplast
sperm with 2 subapical flagella
oogamy (large egg fuses w/ small sperm)
complex multicellular body w/ parenchyma tissue and plasmodesmata(cytoplasmic channels between cells)
coloechaete probably very similar to ancestor of land plants, gametophyte generation is the only persistent generation
why did more advanced land plants become less dependent on water?
directly related to water dependence (less dependent on wter you are, the more land area you can colonize)
"land plants"
Why did embryophytes move onto land?
water provides bath of nutrients, constantly hydrated and supported BUT has a very limited amount of light and CO2
Embryophytes adaptations to living on land
spores with a sporopollenin wall (resists drying out and decay)
flavonoids (uv protection)
archegonia(egg producing) and antheridia (sperm producing)
embryo (protects young plant)
apical meristem
1st group of living embryophytes
why is "bryophytes" bot monophyletic?
because tracheophytes are not included
general term for spore-producing structure in a plant= capsule in bryophytes
liverworts 2 types of growth forms:
thallose and leafy (90% of species)
plant body that lacks true leaves, stems, and roots
stalked body that grows by cell elongation
erect lefy dominant gametophyte w/ creeping "stems" and multicellular rhizoids
mosses gametophyte body possesses:
hydroids (water-conducting), and leptoids (food-conducting)
no true xylem or phloem
mosses capsule possesses:
stomata w/ guard cells
economic and useful moss:
sphagmun moss
mosses incresing adaptations to life on land:
stomata= regulated pores for gas exchange and transpiration
polyphenolics= chemical compounds for rigidity ex: lignin
why would u need more support on land?
gravity force
tracheophytes characteristics
sporophyte dominant generation!
branched plant body developing more specialized apical meristems
true vascular tissue (xylem and phloem)!
why a branched sporophhyte dominant life cycle?
allows for production of many spoers
harmful recessive alleles can be masked
genetic variation
spike-mosses, club-mosses, and quillworts
in Lycophytes; small leaves with one vein
True Roots
in lycophytes; multicellular, complex, underground organ for absorbing water and nutrients
Lateral sporangia
in lycophytes; on sprophylls, often concentrated in specialized areas= strobilus
Development of heterospory
in lycophytes; sprorophyte body that produces two different types of spores (megaspores and microspores) -> unisexual gametophytes
Euphyllophytes characteristics
multiflagellate sperm
endogenous roots
overtopping growth (unequarl branching of apical meristem)
megaphylls = large leves with many veins
seed plants characteristics
axillary branching- lateral buds
secondary growth
wood- vascular cambium
heterospory- allowed for evolution of SEED!
young seed (with unfertilized egg and integument)
mature ovule (w/ fertilized egg)
coniferls, cycads, ginkgo, gnetophytes
cone-bearing plants
conifer characteristics
simple magaphylls (needles or scales)
well-developed wood
microsporangia on strobilus
ex: of conifer
pacific yew= source of taxal -> used to treat ovarian cancer
like coontie
palm-like growth
soft wood
coralloid roots (cyanobacteria that fix nitrogen & produce toxins)
seeds in a strobilus
seeds dispersed by vertebrates (also contain cycasin)
1 species "living fossil"
deciduous trees
simple leaves with dichotomous venation
trees with long shoots and spur shoots
microsporangia clustered on strobili
medicinal plant for improving memory
3 genera left today, share some characteristics with angiosperms
angiosperms characteristics
simple leaves w/ network of veins
xylem w/ vessel elements
sieve tube elements and companion cells
female gametophyte (embryo sac)
double fertilization
pollen sacs
pollen grains
major angiosperm groups
"basal families"