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41 Cards in this Set

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Life Cycle
sequence of stages leading from the adult of one generation to the adult of the next
By what process does asexual reproduction occur?
mitosis
What are the 2 ways that plants can reproduce asexually?
-through adventitious shoots
-from leaves which produce new plants whenever they touch the soil
gametes
sperm and eggs
what 3 types of cells are involved in sexual reproduction in plants?
spores, sperm, and eggs
Can a spore develop into an organism without fusing with another reproductive cell?
yes
Where is the embyro in gymnosperms and angiosperms found?
in the seed
meiosis
a type of nuclear division that is involved only in sexual reproduction and results in daughter cells with half the original number of chromosomes
homologous chromosomes
a pair of chromosomes which control the same characteristics- one derived from sperm, one derived from egg
diploid
two SETS of chromosomes
haploid
one SET of chromosome
ployploid
more than two SETS of chromosomes
meiosis 1
homologous chromosomes separate
prophase 1
synapsis: the pairing of homologous chromosomes
metaphase 1
homologous oairs of chromosomes line up on the metaphase plate
anaphase 1
separation of homologous chromosomes
telophase 1
reformation of nuclear envelope and cytokinesis
meiosis 2
sister chromatids separate
How many multicellular forms of each plant exist? and what are they?
2- sporophyte and gametophyte
sporophyte
2n form of plant
gametophtye
1n form of plant
alternation of generations
sporophyte and gametophyte alternate in producing each other
5 steps in typical sexual life sysle of a plant
1. some cells in a diploid sporophyte undergo meiosis to produce haploid spores
2. the spore undergoes meiosis to produce a haploid gametophyte
3. One or more cells of the gametophyte undergo mitosis to produce a haploid sperm and egg
4. sperm and egg combine in fertilization to produce diploid zygote
5. zygote undergoes mitosis to produce a diploid sporophyte
in vascular plants, which is smaller: gametophyte or sporophyte?
gametophyte (they can live independently, though)
megaspore
a type of spore that produces a female gametophyte
microspore
a type of spore that produces a male gametophyte
strobili
cones
How do cones and flowers form?
they come from reproductive meristems, which come from apical meristems
sporophylls
modified spore-producing leaves found on cones and flowers
sporangia
hollow structures INSIDE the SPOROPHYLLS which produce spores. the spores then give rise to the gametophytes.
pollen
male gametophytes
pollination
the transfer of the pollen from the "male" part of the plant to the "female" part
ovule
structure which contains the egg
if fertilization occurs, what does the ovule turn into?
a seed
self-pollination
male and female gametophytes are on the same plant
monoecious
each plant has both male and female flowers (pumpkin and corn!)
dioecious
each plant only has one gender of flower (marijuana and willows!)
in dioecious species, pollination can only occur through...
cross-pollination
apical meristems that become reproductive develop into either ... (2 things)
pollen cones or ovulate cones
pollen cones contain...
sporophylls containing sporangia that form spores by meiosis
ovulate cones contain...
egg-bearing ovules